Grubgraben near Kammern (Hadersdorf-Kammern, Lower Austria) was the first Palaeolithic open-air site discovered in Austria (1870). Nestled between the north-eastern steep drop of the Heiligenstein and the western slope of the Gaißberg, it extends over an elevated terrain, which is open to the south. In the course of its long history of research, many renowned archaeologists have studied this site. The first excavations were conducted by Josef Bayer in 1922. Friedrich Brandtner initiated a systematic study from 1985 to 1987, inviting a team under Anta Montet-White (University of Kansas) to excavate. 1989/90 he carried out further field investigations together with Bohuslav Klíma.
Five archaeological horizons were identified, but only layers 2 and 3, where the structures of a dwelling were documented, were extensively excavated. C14 dates range between 18,000 and 19,000 years BP. The site is characterised by a rich bone industry, including needles with small eyes, ivory points, spatulas, round pendants and denticulated bone artefacts. Particularly noteworthy is a bâtonpercé, the fragment of a spear thrower and a flute made from the tibia of a reindeer.