This interdisciplinary study deals with the pigments from the burials and settlement layers of the Gravettian site Krems-Wachtberg. The focus is on pigment analysis, investigations into the origin of the colour raw materials as well as conclusions about the preparation and use of the various pigments.

The red ochre graves of the Gravettian, which include the site Krems-Wachtberg, are not only a striking series of Palaeolithic burials, but represent a uniform burial practice of Homo sapiens in Europe. Large quantities of colour pigments at the site Krems-Wachtberg were also found in contemporary settlement layers, which could be related to the painted or colour-covered objects of ivory and bone discovered there. These are the oldest evidence of intentional application of paint in the Gravettian of Central Europe.

In the context of the project, mineral pigments were sampled from both the burials and the settlement layers for analyses. The aim is to clarify which colour pigments were used, whether or not pigments found in the graves correspond to those used in the settlement areas, how the materials were processed, and if the raw materials can be traced to distinct natural deposits. The analyses are complemented by investigating pigment traces from selected artefacts, e.g. art objects.

Publications

Publikationen

  • Simon, U., Einwögerer, Th., Händel, M., Zwei bemalte Kunstobjekte aus dem Pavlovien von Krems-Wachtberg. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 50, 2020, 1–8.
  • F. Cappa, M. Händel, U. Simon, T. Einwögerer, V. M. F. Hammer, M. Schreiner, Composition of colour pigments at the Gravettian site Krems-Wachtberg, Lower Austria. Metalla, Archäometrie und Denkmalpflege, Sonderheft 9, 2019, 85–88.
  • U. Simon, More painting from the Pavlovian of Krems-Wachtberg (Austria). Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age, 58th Annual Meeting in Heidenheim, 28th of March – 1st of April, 2016, Budapest 2016, 61.
  • M. Händel, V. M. F. Hammer, U. Simon, Colourful horizons – assessing the variety of colour pigments processed and applied at the Pavlovian site Krems-Wachtberg. Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age, 57th Annual Meeting in Heidenheim, 7th–11th of April, 2015, Erlangen 2015, 37–38.
  • Ch. Neugebauer-Maresch, V. Hammer, Th. Einwögerer, M. Händel, U. Simon, Die gravettienzeitlichen Rötelgräber und die Farbstoffe des Fundplatzes Krems-Wachtberg/Niederösterreich. In: H. Meller, C.-H. Wunderlich, F. Knoll (Hrsg.), Rot – Die Archäologie bekennt Farbe. 5. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag vom 04. bis 06. Oktober 2012 in Halle (Saale). Tagungen des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle 10, Halle/Saale 2013, 135–141.
  • U. Simon, New Evidence of Painting in the Gravettian of Central Europe. In: Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age, 54th Annual Meeting in Toulouse, 10th–14th of April, Erlangen 2012, 49.
  • Ch. Neugebauer-Maresch, Rote Farbe im Bestattungsritus der Steinzeiten. In: E. Lauermann, S. Sam (Hrsg.), Drei Farben – Magie. Zauber. Geheimnis, Bedeutung der Farbe über Jahrtausende. Publikation des Urgeschichtemuseums Niederösterreich NF 497, Asparn/Zaya 2011, 26–43.

Principal investigator

Ulrich Simon

Cooperations

  • HR Dr. Vera M. F. Hammer (NHM Wien, Mineralogisch-Petrographische Abteilung)
  • Dr. Walpurga Antl-Weiser (NHM Wien, Prähistorische Abteilung)
  • Univ.-Prof. Dr. Michael Götzinger (Universität Wien, Institut für Mineralogie und Kristallographie)
  • ao. Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Ottner (Universität für Bodenkultur, Institut für Angewandte Geologie)
  • ao. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Gerhard Trnka (Universität Wien, Institut für Urgeschichte und Historische Archäologie)
  • Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Univ.-Doz. Manfred Schreiner, Dr.rer.nat. MSc. Federica Cappa (Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien, Institut für Naturwissenschaften und Technologie in der Kunst)

Duration

seit 2010

Funding

  • ÖAW
  • externe Geldgeber