In the late 13th and more pronouncedly in the early 12th century BCE the contacts between Late Mycenaean Greece and Bronze Age Italy assumed a new character. This becomes especially visible on the basis of metal objects, archaeometric analyses of which can contribute to understanding their provenance and distribution patterns.

This archaeological-archaeometric project is conducted by Reinhard Jung in collaboration with Mathias Mehofer (VIAS – University of Vienna), Ernst Pernicka (Curt-Engelhorn-Centre Archaeometry, Mannheim, Germany) and Ioannis Moschos (Pátra, Greece) as main collaboration partners. Numerous other partners, especially from Greece and Italy, are also involved. The project is financially supported by the Institute for Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP) in Philadelphia, USA, in 2007 and 2008. It complimented the stand-alone project on the cultural, economic and political contacts between the Aegean and Italy from 1600 to 1000 BCE, funded by the FWF – Austrian Science Fund (Project P 17912, 2005–2007) and conducted by R. Jung at the former Mycenaean Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

The aim is to assess the nature of contacts between late Mycenaean Greece and Bronze Age Italy on the basis of new data on metallurgical production and the exchange of finished products. The material basis of the project are the chemical, mass spectrometric and metallographic analyses of metal objects made of bronze, copper and lead – in detail 49 artefacts from Italy, 89 from Greece, one from Austria and two from Egypt. These finds comprise both well-known old finds and new discoveries at modern excavations that were documented and evaluated for the first time in this project.

The results of the project will be published as a monograph. Part of this monograph will be the historical and archaeological evaluation of the results by Reinhard Jung (submitted as a habilitation thesis in 2012). Contributions on the results of the analysis (R. Jung, M. Mehofer, E. Pernicka), the metallurgy (M. Mehofer) and contributions on the various finds and their archaeological context by the respective excavators or analysts in Greece and Italy will complement the volume.

Publications

Publikationen

  • R. Jung (mit einem Appendix von M. Mehofer/R. Jung/E. Pernicka), Frattesina between Continental Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, Padusa 56, 2020, 173–202.
  • R. Jung, Push and Pull Factors of the Sea Peoples between Italy and the Levant. In: J. Driessen (Hrsg.), An Archaeology of Forced Migration. Crisis-induced Mobility and the Collapse of the 13th c. BCE Eastern Mediterranean. Aegis 15 (Louvain-la-Neuve 2018) 273–306.
  • R. Jung, Inferno in der Bronzezeit. Das Ende der ostmediterranen Königreiche. In: Mykene – Die sagenhafte Welt des Agamemnon. Ausstellungskatalog Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe, Darmstadt 2018) 230–233.
  • R. Jung, The Sea Peoples after Three Millennia: Possibilities and Limitations of Historical Reconstruction. In: P. Fischer, T. Bürge (Hrsg.), “Sea Peoples” Up-to-Date. New Research on Transformations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 13th–11th Centuries BCE. Proceedings of the ESF-Workshop held at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 3–4 November 2014, Contributions to the Chronology of the Eastern Mediterranean 35 (Vienna 2017) 23–42.
  • M. Mehofer, R. Jung, Weapons and Metals – Interregional Contacts between Italy and the Eastern Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age. In: P. Fischer, T. Bürge (Hrsg.), “Sea Peoples” Up-to-Date. New Research on Transformations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 13th–11th Centuries BCE. Proceedings of the ESF-Workshop held at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 3–4 November 2014, Contributions to the Chronology of the Eastern Mediterranean 35 (Vienna 2017) 389–400.
  • R. Jung, M. Mehofer, Mycenaean Greece and Bronze Age Italy: Cooperation, Trade or War? Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 43, 2013, 175–193.
  • R. Jung, M. Mehofer, E. Pernicka, Metal Exchange in Italy from the Middle to the Final Bronze Age (14th – 11th cent. BCE), In: P. P. Betancourt, S. C. Ferrence (Hrsg.), Metallurgy: Understanding How, Learning Why. Studies in Honor of James D. Muhly, Prehistory Monographs 29, Philadelphia 2011, 231–248.
  • R. Jung, I. Moschos, M. Mehofer, Φονεύοντας με τον ίδιο τρόπο: Οι ειρηνικές επαφές για τον πόλεμο μεταξύ δυτικής Ελλάδας και Ιταλίας κατά τη διάρκεια των όψιμων μυκηναϊκών χρόνων. In: S. A. Paipetis, Ch. Giannopoulou (Hrsg.), Πρακτικά . Proceedings: Πολιτισμική αλληλογονιμοποίηση νότιας Ιταλίας και δυτικής Ελλάδας μέσα από την ιστορία. Cultural Cross Fertilization of Southern Italy and Western Greece through History. Pátra, ohne Jahr – 2008, 85–107.

Principal investigator

Reinhard Jung

Cooperations

  • Mathias Mehofer (VIAS – Universität Wien)
  • Ernst Pernicka (Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum für Archäometrie, Mannheim)
  • Ioannis Moschos (ΣΤ´ Εφορεία Προϊστορικών και Κλασικών Αρχαιοτήτων, Pátra)

Further cooperations

  • Alberto Cazzella and Giulia Recchia (Università Foggia)
  • Joulika Christakopoulou-Somakou (ΣΤ´ Εφορεία Προϊστορικών και Κλασικών Αρχαιοτήτων, Pátra)
  • Theodoros Giannopoulos (Pátra)
  • Anton Kern (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien)
  • Lazaros Kolonas (Εταιρεία Μελετών Μυκηναϊκής Αχαΐας, Pátra)
  • Franco Nicolis and Elena Silvestri (Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Provincia autonoma di Trento)
  • Lena Papazoglou-Manioudaki (Athen)
  • Eleni Palaiologou and Christos Piteros (Δ´ Εφορεία Προϊστορικών και Κλασικών Αρχαιοτήτων, Náfplio)
  • Thanasis Papadopoulos (Ioánnina)
  • Kostas Paschalidis (Archäologisches Nationalmuseum Athen)
  • Luciano Salzani (Verona)
  • Andreas Sotiriou (ΙΕ´ Εφορεία Προϊστορικών και Κλασικών Αρχαιοτήτων, Kefaloniá)
  • Maria Stavropoulou-Gatsi (Pátra)
  • Anna Maria Tunzi Sisto (Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Puglia)
  • Alessandro Vanzetti (Università La Sapienza, Rom)
  • Andreas Vlachopoulos (Universität Ioánnina)
  • Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung (Berlin)

Duration

since 08/2013

Funding

Institute for Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP), Philadelphia, USA