The early centuries of the Later Diffusion of Buddhism to Tibet constitute a crucial period for the development of Tibetan scholasticism. Tibetan scholars faced the import of massive quantities of Indian Buddhist sources. They developed various techniques to deal with this corpus and its contents.

In a similar way, scholars today are faced with great quantities of new Tibetan textual material. Vast numbers of works from the 10th to the 15th century have recently surfaced, in particular works that were preserved in gNas bcu lha khang of ’Bras spungs Monastery (referred to as the private library of the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho [1617–1682]; see Ducher 2020) and other monastic libraries. Among those, works that were published as facsimiles in the bKa' gdams gsung 'bum ("Collected Works of the bKa' gdams pas") and are now also digitally available through the Buddhist Digital Resource Center (, offer a wonderful opportunity for in-depth investigation of early Tibetan scholasticism.

As part of their ongoing research on Tibetan Scholasticism, Pascale Hugon (IKGA) and Kazuo Kano (Komazawa University, Tokyo) initiated in 2018 the project "A gateway to early Tibetan scholasticism," which focuses on the bKa' gdams gsung 'bum Collection. The first step of the project pursues two aims:

(1) a detailed description of the material contained in the bKa' gdams gsung 'bum Collection (information about the exemplars as well as the contents of each text)

(2) editions and translations of the incipit, conclusion, and colophon of each text.

This webpage provides open access to the project's results at the present stage, in the form of "info-sheet documents" (i), the editions and translations of excerpts being available in separate document (t). The information contained in these PDF-documents will be, in the future, made available in a more practical format through a database and finalized for a publication in print. Note that all the translations in these documents represent a work-in-progress (cf. the date of the latest update) and should therefore be treated accordingly.

Also available for download below are the e-texts (e) that have been put together in the course of our investigation and in preparation for the last step of the project, in which they will be completed and marked-up in XML. These contain a transcription of the text (in Wylie) which, at the minimum, covers the portions edited and translated in the info-sheet, as well as the first and last folios. This already gives a good idea of the style of the text and of the types of orthographic particularities found in the exemplar. When available, more extended (and in some cases complete) e-texts have been provided. Note that these e-texts are not critical editions and may not have been proofread (check the status at the beginning of the document). We make no guarantee of accuracy for the contents, but trust they will nonetheless be helpful to researchers.

If you have comments, corrections, or additional information we could include in the info-sheet, please kindly send us an email (you can for instance send us an annotated version of the downloaded document). If you have e-texts (transcriptions) of works from the bKa' gdams gsung 'bum Collection sleeping on your hard-drive, you might consider bringing them to a more useful fate by sharing them on this website. All contributions will be duly acknowledged.

pascale.hugon(at) kanokazuo(at)

We are grateful to Mathias Fermer for his advice on technical issues.


The tables below list, for each text, the name of the author; the short title of the text (according to the info-sheet); a link to the manuscript copy at BDRC; a link to download the info-sheet (i), the excerpts (t), and the e-text (e); information about the status of the e-text (F=fragmentary, P=partial, C=complete); the date of the latest update of these documents (DD.MM.YY).

The bibliographical references for the articles and books mentioned in the info-sheet can be found here: Bibliographical references.

The editorial conventions applied in the info-sheet and the e-texts are listed here: Editorial conventions.

Set 1

bKaʼ gdams gsung ʼbum phyogs bsgrigs thengs dang po. Vols. 1-30. dPal brtsegs bod yig dpe rnying zhib ʼjug khang (ed.). Chengdu 2006.

Vol. 1

1.Rin chen bzang pobde mchog nor buBDRCiteC13.7.20
2.Rin chen bzang porab gnas don gsal (A)BDRCiteC15.12.20
3.Atiśa/Rin chen bzang pomngon rtogs bshadBDRCiteC18.6.20
4.Rin chen bzang porab gnas don gsal (B)BDRCiteC18.6.20
5.Rin chen bzang pobde can smon lamBDRCiteC4.9.20
6.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabdag yig bsdusBDRCiteC18.6.20
7.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabshes rab snying bshad don bsdusBDRCiteC18.6.20
8.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabmngon rtogs rgyan don bsdusBDRCiteF3.9.20
9.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabmdo sde rgyan don bsdusBDRCiteF18.6.20
10.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabdbus mtha' don bsdusBDRCiteF18.6.20
11.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabrgyud bla don bsdusBDRCiteF30.7.20
12.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabrigs thigs ‘grel don bsdusBDRCiteC18.6.20
13.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabrnam nges dka' gnas bshadBDRCiteF18.6.20
14.rNgog Blo ldan shes rabspring yig bdud rtsiBDRCiteC30.7.20


Vol. 2

1.rNgog Blo ldan shes rab/'Bre Shes rab 'baryum brgyad stong don bsdusBDRCiteF18.6.20
2.Ar Byang chub ye shessher phyin rgya 'grelBDRCiteC11.6.21
3.Ar Byang chub ye shesmngon rtogs rgyan 'grel rnam 'byedBDRCiteF18.6.20


Vol. 3

1.Ar Byang chub ye shessher phyin sdud tshigs rnam bshad (A)BDRCiteF15.12.20
2.Ar Byang chub ye shessher phyin sdud tshigs rnam bshad (B)BDRCiteF15.12.20
3.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnasrngog lo rnam tharBDRCiteP15.12.20
4.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnassdud tshigs rnam bshadBDRCiteF15.12.20
5.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnasbrgyad stong 'grel chen rnam bshadBDRCiteF15.12.20


Vol. 4

1.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnasrin phreng lnga bcu paBDRCiteC22.6.20
2.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnasbstan rim chen (I)BDRCiteF22.6.20

Vol. 5

1.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnasbstan rim chen (II)BDRCiteF22.6.20
2.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnasbstan rim 'jug tshulBDRCiteF22.6.20
3.Gro lung pa Blo gros 'byung gnasnyi khri lnga stong 'grel rnam bshadBDRCiteF22.6.20

Vol. 6

1.rGya dmar ba Byang chub gragsspyod 'jug gsal bshadBDRCiteF7.7.20
2.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gebden gnyis rnam bshadBDRCiteC13.7.20
3.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gebden gnyis don bsdusBDRCite/e'C13.7.20
4.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gedbu ma snang 'grelBDRCiteC16.7.20
5.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gedbu ma rgyan 'grel bshadBDRCiteC15.7.20

Vol. 7

1.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gedbu ma snying poBDRCiteC23.2.21
2.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gespyod 'jug don bsdusBDRCiteF23.2.21
3.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gebslab kun btus don bsdusBDRCiteC23.2.21
4.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gergyud bla ma bsdus donBDRCiteC23.2.21
5.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gergyud bla ma don gsalBDRCiteF23.2.21
6.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gemdo sde rgyan bshadBDRCiteF23.2.21
7.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gemdo sde rgyan lus rnam bzhagBDRCiteF23.2.21

Vol. 8

1.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gernam nges bsdus donBDRCiteC14.4.21
2.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gernam nges 'od zerBDRCiteC14.4.21
3.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gemun selBDRCiteC14.4.21

Vol. 9

1.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gegrub mtha'BDRCite 16.4.21
2.Phya pa Chos kyi seng geso thar mdo 'grelBDRCiteF16.4.21
3.Phya pa Chos kyi seng ge'od ldan ti kaBDRCiteF16.4.21
4.Phya pa Chos kyi seng gedge tshul rnam bshadBDRCiteF16.4.21

Vol. 10

1.Khu Shes rab brtson 'grusmngon rtogs rgyan 'grel bshadBUDAiteF21.9.21
2.'Jad pa gZhon nu byang chubyum bsdus donBUDAiteF21.9.21
3.'Jad pa / Anonymous (?)bstod paBUDAiteC23.9.21