VLACH symbols for Aromanian

IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample (translation)
aAanear-open central unroundedcá (house)
bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebag (I put)
cKʲkʲvoiceless palatal plosiveári (he/she loses)
çHʲhʲvoiceless palatal fricativeári, ḙári (gall)
ɕŚśvoiceless alveolo-palatal sibilantind. úśă (door)
dDdvoiced alveolar plosivedínti (tooth)
ðΔδvoiced dental fricativelíγδă (animal fat)
d͡zDzʣvoiced alveolar sibilant affricateʣḙána (at the top)
d͡ʒDždžvoiced palato-alveolar affricatebiliíc (bracelet)
d͡ʑDźdźvoiced alveolo-palatal affricateḙána (at the top)
eEeclose-mid front unrounded vowelmeš (months)
əĂămid central vowelcásă (house), reg., ind. pắni (bread)
ɛƐɛopen-mid front unrounded vowelr. pέni (bread)
fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativeáflu (find)
ɟGʲgʲvoiced palatal plosiveáʦă (ice)
gGgvoiced velar plosivegrec (Greek)
ɣΓγvoiced velar fricativeaγónʲa (fast)
h, χ▶, Hhvoiceless glottal (uvular) fricativereg. hránă (food)
iIiclose front unrounded voweldínti (tooth)
jĬĭpalatal approximant or semivowelĭásti (he/she is), ĭo (I)
ʲ ʲpalatalization of previous soundkʲári (he/she loses), gʲíză (cottage cheese)
ʝΓʲγʲvoiced palatal fricativeγʲíngʲ (twenty), r. γʲínγʲ (twenty)
kCcvoiceless velar plosivecásă (house)
lLlalveolar lateral approximantlup (wolf)
ɫⱢɫvelarized alveolar lateral approx.ind., reg. ɫup (wolf)
ʎLʲlʲpalatal lateral approximanthʲíu (son)
mMmbilabial nasalmári (big)
nNnalveolar nasalnári (nose)
ɲNʲnʲpalatal nasalarmî́ (Aromanians)
oOo(close-)mid back rounded vowelfoc (fire)
ɔɔƆopen-mid back rounded vowelr. ùn-ɔ́ra (a time)
ɤÎîclose-mid back unrounded a. pî́ni (bread)
pPpvoiceless bilabial plosivelup (wolf)
rRralveolar trillráʦi (cold)
ʀƦʀuvular fricative or trillr. ʀáʦi (cold)
sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantsă (house)
ʃŠšvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantúšă (door)
tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivetétă (aunt)
θΘθvoiceless dental fricativeθi (every)
t͡sʦʦvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricate ʦap (he-goat)
t͡ʃČčvoiceless palato-alveolar affricatefičór (boy)
t̠͡ɕĆćvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricateind., reg. fićór (boy)
uUuclose back rounded vowelbun (good)
 faintly audible uom (man)
vVvvoiced labiodental fricativeváli (valley)
wŬŭvoiced labio-velar approximantnḙáă (snow)
zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantχázi (joke, pleasure)
ʑŹźvoiced alveolo-palatal sibilantind., reg. źuźunár (cicada)
ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantžužunár (cicada)
 
Diphthongs and triphthongs vs. semivowels

The diphthongs ḙa/i̭a and o̭a/ṷa contrast with ĭa (IPA /ja/) and ŭa (IPA /wa/) respectively, though they sound similar and they do not form minimal pairs. We usually note them as diphthongs (ḙa/i̭a, o̭a/ṷa) and use ĭ and ŭ only when the approximant has a clear consonantal character; both may appear according region, speaker and phonetical surroundings (e.g. i̭ásti/ĭásti, bi̭ui̭/bĭui̭, aṷá/aŭá, nḙáṷă/nḙáŭă).

 

Abbreviations
a.armînḙášti (Southern varieties: Pindus, Gramos et al.)
r.ʀămănέšti (Northern varieties: Farsherot et al.)
ind.   individual
reg. regional