Common symbols in all languages

´Main stress: ✎ dáyroom
`Secondary stress: ✎ ìntonátion
apostrophe in standard punctuation in English translations only, not to be confused with ' for palatalization
˝Stress with emphasis: ✎ My gőd, that-s me̋!
ːLength: ✎ gooːd!
In case of extreme length, esp. in songs, the symbol can be repeated: ✎ tralaláːːː
Alternatively, lenght may be indicated also by repetition of a letter: ✎ tralaláá
Attention: this symbol (ː) is not a colon (:).
" "Introduction of concept, technical term or very unusual word. An English equivalent or explanation may be added in the translation in round brackets:
✎ She invited us to their "wigwam" (dwelling) and we drunk until the morning. 
< >  Direct speech. Punctuation is to be introduced within the direct speech signs and after when the direct speech is embedded. Use colon after the introductory clause:
✎ The Goddess said: <You must make a choice.>
Do not use the full stop when the direct speech is at the beginning:
✎ <You must make a choice,> the Goddess said.
Do not use a comma when the quotation ends with a question mark or exclamation mark:
✎ <Did you make your choice?> the Goddess asked. The Goddess asked: <Did you make your choice?>
✎ <No!> she replied. She replied: <No!>
Internal dialogues are seen as direct quotations as well:
✎ And then I thought to myself: <What if I can't make it?>
The same symbol is used for quotations in quotations:
✎ <Cleopatra told Caesar: <All strange events are welcome,>> said the teacher.
[?]Not deciphered segment; impossible to hear what is being said; to be indicated in original languages and translation:
✎ We went to a really [?] club.
[...] Omission of not relevant segment. This symbol should be used as rare as possible. For longer omission, the duration in seconds can be mentioned: ✎ [...10 sec...]
[ ]Introductions of the annotator in the original text or the translation:
(a) omissions: ✎ Today [we don’t prepare] neither meatballs nor anything else.
(b) giving wider accepted form: ✎He was talking a load of gobbledygook [nonsense].
(c) corrections for better understanding: ✎ All of chai mildren [my children]
(d) notes on sound events and body language: ✎ [laughs] [coughs] [crosstalk] [applause] [phone ringing] [dial tone] [nervous] [uncertain] [whisper]
( )(a) phoneme reduced in quantity: ✎ ri(n)g, when ‘n’ can hardly be heard. 
(b) confusing elements and repetitions:
✎ <Ye-, yes,> he said, <he will go>, he said, <tomorrow.> can be reproduced as:
✎ <() yes,> he said, <he will go () tomorrow.>
(c) English equivalent or explanation when introducing a concept, technical term or very unusual word:
✎ She invited us to their "wigwam" (dwelling) and we drunk until the morning. 
-(a) pair words: ✎ pot-belly
(b) contraction (in some languages): ✎ s-o dus (Romanian: he went)
(c) additional morphemes (in songs, poetry, colloquial speech): ✎ I am singing-ing.
Stuttering we indicate like this: ✎ Why is this m-m-moist?
(d) change of speaker: ✎ How are you? - Fine!
--(a) unfinished word (-- without white space):
✎ Most of them were rent--
The adding of the assumed missing elements is optional:
✎ Most of them were rent[ing]--
(b) unfinished idea (␣--␣ with white space):
✎ We went to -- and forgot to take the keys.
---unfinished sentence (␣--- with white space):
✎ Most of them had no ---
ǁ::ǁelements between these symbols are repeated:
✎ And so he killed the dragon ǁ: and fled to the forest :ǁ
= And so he killed the dragon and fled to the forest, and fled to the forest.
✎ ǁ: And so he killed the dragon, :ǁ: and fled to the forest :ǁ
= And so he killed the dragon, and so he killed the dragon, and fled to the forest, and fled to the forest.
  
 

Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.

 

As for the spelling of geographical names, we follow UNGEGN recommendations and geonames. Where there are usual exonym forms in English language, we prefer them (e.g. Athens instead of Athina).

 

Names of persons are written in the form the speaker prefers to be published.