Transcription guidelines

General principles

Transcription is the systematic representation of language in written form, based on the utterances of speakers. In order to protect endangered languages, our Commission encourages all speakers (individuals and communities) to write their language in a simple system and find the utmost consensus to make written products accessible to as many people as possible. In addition to popular transcription for widespread use, there are scientific transcriptions that aim to provide accurate documentation and to make the data comparable. For this purpose, VLACH follows the phonetic principles of the International Phonetic Alphabet in the subtitles of its videos. Since many different regional traditions and models exist worldwide, there are numerous deviations of the transcription systems, which is why, in the following, common principles for all transcriptions on VLACH are first compiled. After that you will find the transcription principles and examples for each language. Our main principles when making scientific transcriptions are as follows:

  1. We write what we hear: Texts are transcribed as they sound in the utterances of the speakers.
  2. Pronounciation errors are usually not corrected.
  3. Slang words and regionalisms are kept as used.
  4. We avoid italics and bold.
  5. We do not use more than one space between words.
  6. We do not use the tab button. 
  7. Sentences begin with capital letter and end with a punctuation mark.
  8. We do not use abbreviations and numbers in the original language, but write the way they are pronounced.
  9. As the names and roles of our interviewed persons are known in the metadata, we do not mention the speakers in the subtitles.
  10. Mentioning sound events and body language is optional.

 

Common symbols in all languages

´Main stress: ✎ dáyroom
`Secondary stress: ✎ ìntonátion
˝Stress with emphasis: ✎ My gőd, that-s me̋!
ːLength: ✎ gooːd!
In case of extreme length, esp. in songs, the symbol can be repeated: ✎ tralaláːːː
Alternatively, lenght may be indicated also by repetition of a letter: ✎ tralaláá
Attention: this symbol (ː) is not a colon (:).
" "Introduction of concept, technical term or very unusual word. An English equivalent or explanation may be added in the translation in round brackets:
✎ She invited us to their "wigwam" (dwelling) and we drunk until the morning. 
< >  Direct speech. Punctuation is to be introduced within the direct speech signs and after when the direct speech is embedded:
✎ Mary then told Peter: <Go and ring the bells!>.
✎ <Please come back!> Anna said.
Internal dialogues are seen as direct quotations as well:
✎ And then I thought to myself: <What if I can't make it?>
[?]Not deciphered segment; impossible to hear what is being said; to be indicated in original languages and translation:
✎ We went to a really [?] club.
[...] Omission of not relevant segment. This symbol should be used as rare as possible. For longer omission, the duration in seconds can be mentioned: ✎ [...10 sec...]
[ ]Introductions of the annotator in the original text or the translation:
(a) omissions: ✎ Today [we don’t prepare] neither meatballs nor anything else.
(b) giving wider accepted form: ✎He was talking a load of gobbledygook [nonsense].
(c) corrections for better understanding: ✎ All of chai mildren [my children]
(d) notes on sound events and body language: ✎ [laughs] [coughs] [crosstalk] [applause] [phone ringing] [dial tone] [nervous] [uncertain] [whisper]
( )(a) phoneme reduced in quantity: ✎ ri(n)g, when ‘n’ can hardly be heard. 
(b) not pronounced elements, necessary for understanding:
✎ we came by air(plane)
(c) confusing repetitions:
✎ <Ye-, yes,> he said, <he will go>, he said, <tomorrow.> can be transcribed as:
✎ <() yes,> he said, <he will go () tomorrow.>
-(a) pair words: ✎ pot-belly
(b) contraction: ✎ they-ve got
(c) additional morphemes (in songs, poetry, colloquial speech): ✎ I am singing-ing.
Also stuttering we recomend to indicate like this: ✎ Why is this m-m-moist?
(d) change of speaker: ✎ How are you? - Fine!
--(a) unfinished word (-- without white space):
✎ Most of them were rent--
The adding of the assumed missing elements is optional:
✎ Most of them were rent[ing]--
(b) unfinished idea (␣--␣ with white space):
✎ We went to -- and forgot to take the keys.
---unfinished sentence (␣---␣ with white space):
✎ Most of them had no ---.
  
 Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.
 

IPA symbols

IPA symbols

IPA  listen  phonetic description
anear-open central unrounded vowel
ɐopen front unrounded vowel
ãopen front unrounded nasal vowel
ɑopen back unrounded vowel
ɒopen back rounded vowel
ænear-open front unrounded vowel
ʌopen-mid back unrounded vowel
bvoiced bilabial plosive
ɓvoiced bilabial implosive
ʙbilabial trill
βvoiced bilabial approximant
cvoiceless palatal plosive
çvoiceless palatal fricative
ɕvoiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant
dvoiced alveolar plosive
ɗvoiced alveolar implosive
ɖvoiced retroflex stop
ðvoiced dental fricative
d͡zvoiced alveolar sibilant affricate
d͡ʒvoiced palato-alveolar affricate
d̠͡ʑvoiced alveolo-palatal affricate
ɖ͡ʐvoiced retroflex affricate
eclose-mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ̃close-mid front unrounded nasal vowel
əmid central vowel 
ɘclose-mid central unrounded vowel
ɛopen-mid front unrounded vowel
ɜopen-mid central unrounded vowel
fvoiceless labiodental fricative
ɸvoiceless bilabial fricative
ɡvoiced velar plosive
ɠvoiced velar implosive
ɢvoiced uvular stop
ʛvoiced uvular implosive
ɣvoiced velar fricative
hvoiceless glottal fricative
ħvoiceless glottal fricative
ɦvoiceless pharyngeal fricative
ɧvoiced glot
ʜvoiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative
iclose front unrounded vowel
ɨclose central unrounded vowel
ɪnear-close near-front unrounded vowel
jpalatal approximant
ʝvoiced palatal fricative
ɟvoiced palatal plosive
ʄvoiced palatal implosive
kvoiceless velar plosive
k͡x voiceless velar affricate
lalveolar lateral approximant
ɫvelarized alveolar lateral approximant
ɬvoiceless lateral fricative
ɭretroflex lateral approximant
ʟvelar lateral approximant
ɮvoiced lateral fricative
ʎpalatal lateral approximant
mbilabial nasal
ɱlabiodental nasal
nalveolar nasal
ɲpalatal nasal
ŋvelar nasal
ɳretroflex nasal
ɴuvular nasal
oclose-mid back rounded vowel
ɔ̃open-mid back rounded nasal vowel 
ɵclose-mid central rounded vowel
øclose-mid front rounded vowel
ɞopen-mid central rounded vowel
œopen-mid front rounded vowel
œ̃open-mid front rounded nasal vowel
ɶopen front rounded vowel
ɔopen-mid back rounded vowel
ɤclose-mid back unrounded vowel
pvoiceless bilabial plosive
p͡fvoiceless labiodental affricate
qvoiceless uvular plosive
ralveolar trill
ɾalveolar tap
ɺalveolar lateral flap
ɽretroflex flap
ɹalveoar approximant
ɻretroflex approximant
ʀuvular fricative
ʁvoiced uvular fricative
 voiced palatal vibrant
svoiceless alveolar sibilant
ʂvoiceless retroflex sibilant
ʃvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilant
s͡f voiceless labio-dental alveolar fricative
tvoiceless alveolar plosive
ʈvoiceless retroflex stop
θvoiceless dental fricative
t͡svoiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
t͡ʃvoiceless palato-alveolar affricate
t̠͡ɕvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
ʈ͡ʂvoiceless retroflex affricate
uclose back rounded vowel
ʉclose central rounded vowel
ʊnear-close near-back rounded vowel
vvoiced labiodental fricative
 semi-voiced labio-dental fricative
ʋlabiodental approximant
ѵlabiodental flap
wvoiced labio-velar approximant
ʍvoiceless labio-velar fricative
ɯclose back unrounded vowel
ɰvoiced velar approximant
xvoiceless velar fricative
χvoiceless uvular fricative
yclose front rounded vowel
ʏnear-close near-front rounded vowel
ɥlabial-palatal approximant
zvoiced alveolar sibilant
ʑvoiced alveolo-palatal sibilant
ʐvoiced retroflex sibilant
ʒvoiced palato-alveolar sibilant
z͡v voiced labio-dental alveolar fricative
ʔglottal stop
ʡvoiceless epiglottal plosive
ʕvoiced pharyngeal fricative
ʢvoiced epiglottal fricative
ʘbilabial click
ǀdental click
ǂpalatoalveolar click
ǁalveolar lateral click
ǃpostalveolar click
   

 

 

VLACH symbols for Aromanian

VLACH symbols for Aromanian

IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample (translation)
aAanear-open central unroundedcá (house)
bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebag (I put)
cKʲkʲvoiceless palatal plosiveári (he/she loses)
çHʲhʲvoiceless palatal fricativeári, ári (gall)
ɕŚśvoiceless alveolo-palatal sibilantind. úśă (door)
dDdvoiced alveolar plosivedínti (tooth)
ðΔδvoiced dental fricativelíγδă (animal fat)
d͡zʣʣvoiced alveolar sibilant affricateʣe̯ána (at the top)
d͡ʒDždžvoiced palato-alveolar affricatebiliíc (bracelet)
d͡ʑDźdźvoiced alveolo-palatal affricatee̯ána (at the top)
eEeclose-mid front unrounded vowelmeš (months)
əĂămid central vowel cásă (house)
ɛƐɛopen-mid front unrounded vowelr. pέni (bread)
fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativeáflu (find)
ɟGʲgʲvoiced palatal plosiveáʦă (ice)
gGgvoiced velar plosivegrec (Greek)
ɣΓγvoiced velar fricativeaγónʲa (fast)
hHhvoiceless glottal fricativereg. hránă (food)
iIiclose front unrounded voweldínti (tooth)
ɪɪɪnear-close near-front unroundedĭástɪ (he/she is)
j---Ĭĭpalatal semi-vowelĭástɪ (he/she is)
jJjpalatal approximantjo (I)
ʝΓʲγʲvoiced palatal fricativeγʲíngʲ (twenty)
kCcvoiceless velar plosivecásă (house)
lLlalveolar lateral approximantlup (wolf)
ɫⱢɫvelarized alveolar lateral approx.ind., reg. ɫup (wolf)
ʎLʲlʲpalatal lateral approximanthʲíu (son)
mMmbilabial nasalmári (big)
nNnalveolar nasalnári (nose)
ɲNʲnʲpalatal nasalarmî́ (Aromanians)
ŋŊŋ Nnvelar nasalăɲgʲós (below)
oOo(close-)mid back rounded vowelfoc (fire)
ɔɔƆopen-mid back rounded vowelr. ùn-ɔ́ra (a time)
ɤÎîclose-mid back unrounded a. pî́ni (bread)
pPpvoiceless bilabial plosivelup (wolf)
rRralveolar trillráʦi (cold)
ʀƦʀuvular fricativer. ʀáʦi (cold)
sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantsă (house)
ʃŠšvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantúšă (door)
tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivetétă (aunt)
θΘθvoiceless dental fricativeθi (every)
t͡sʦʦvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricate ʦap (he-goat)
t͡ʃČčvoiceless palato-alveolar affricatefičór (boy)
t̠͡ɕĆćvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricateind., reg. fićór (boy)
uUuclose back rounded vowelbun (good)
vVvvoiced labiodental fricativeváli (valley)
wWwvoiced labio-velar approximantneáwă (snow)
χvoiceless uvular fricativereg. χránă (food)
zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantχázi (joke, pleasure)
ʑŹźvoiced alveolo-palatal sibilantind., reg. źuźunár (cicada)
ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantžužunár (cicada)
 
Alternative signs
´main stress
`secondary stress
˝stress with emphasis
ʲpalatalization of previous sound, e.g. kʲári (he/she loses), gʲíză (cottage cheese)
 ̑  inverted breve below is used to denote that a vowel is not syllabic, e.g. ʣána (at the top).
Unfortunately, the breve below for the moment is shown as breve above on this site.
We hope to resolve this problem soon. 
 ̥ closing
ːlength (may be indicated also by repetition of symbol)
< > direct speech
[?]not deciphered segment
[...]omission of not relevant segment
( )phoneme reduced in quantity
-contraction, e.g. s-dúsi (he/she went)
--accidental pause, unfinished word, e.g. ti bă-, ti bășái (I ki-, I kissed you)
---unfinished phrase, e.g. ne̯ásim la --- și fuʣím (we went to --- and went away)

 

Abbreviations
a.armîneáști (Southern varieties: Pindus, Gramos et al.)
r.ʀămănέști (Northern varieties: Farsherot)
ind.individual
reg. regional (diverse)

 

Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.

VLACH symbols for Bosnian/ Croatian/ Serbian

VLACH symbols for Bosnian/ Croatian/ Serbian

in work

VLACH symbols for Bulgarian and Macedonian varieties

VLACH symbols for Bulgarian and Macedonian varieties

IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample (translation)
a (ɑ)Aa(near-)open central unrounded v.b. májkə m. májka (mother)
æƐɛnear-open front unrounded v.bb. tukehɛ́ (here)
bBbvoiced bilabial plosiveb., m. bába (old lady)
cK'k'voiceless palatal stopm. k'a (house)
çH'h'voiceless palatal fricativeb. h'íljada (thousand)
ɕŚśvoiceless alveolo-palatal sibilantreg., ind. ɕto (what)
dDdvoiced alveolar plosiveb. dɤ́ɫgo m. dólgo (long)
d͡zDzdzvoiced alveolar sibilant affricatem. dzvézda (star)
d͡ʒDždžvoiced palato-alveolar affricateb. oák m. óak (fireplace)
e, ɛEe(open-)mid front unrounded v.b. cem. céna (price)
əƏəschwab. gləvátə(head)
fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativeb. gotóf m. gótof(ready)
ɸɸɸvoiceless bilabial fricativerup. gotóɸ (ready)
ɟG'g'voiced palatal plosiveb., m. g'aúr (gyaur)
ɡGgvoiced velar plosiveb. gləvá m. gláva (head)
ɣƔγvoiced velar fricativeb. vidjáɣ go (I saw him)
hHhvoiceless glottal fricativeb. hájde (come on)
iIiclose front unrounded vowelb., m. čisto (clean)
ɨYyclose central unrounded vowelwb. býlgar (Bulgarian)
ɪnear-close near-front unroundedbeb. gr'éčɪsk'i (Greek)
jJjpalatal approximantb. jək m. jak (spider)
kKkvoiceless velar plosiveb. kɤ́šta, m. kúk'a (house)
lLlalveolar lateral approximantb.m. l(field)
ɫⱢɫvelarized alveolar lateral appr.b., m. miɫo (nice) 
ʎL'l'palatal lateral approximantb. l'ubóv m. l'úbov (love)
mMmbilabial nasalb. moré m. móre (sea)
nNnalveolar nasalb., m. nos (nouse)
ŋŊŋvelar nasalb. ́ŋko m. ŋko (thin)
ɲN'n'palatal nasalb., m. n'a (bath)
oOoclose-mid back rounded vowelb., m. sol (salt)
ɵÖöclose-mid central rounded vowelm. Kiréčk'öj (Asvestochori)
ɔƆɔopen-mid back rounded vowelrup. kɔ́šta (house)
ɤɤɤclose-mid back unrounded voweb. bɤ́lgar (Bulgarian) 
pPpvoiceless bilabial plosiveb., m. pet (five)
rRralveolar trillb., m. rábota (work)
sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantb., m. sol (salt)
ʂŠšvoiceless retroflex sibilantb., m. što (what)
ʃŠšvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantb., m. što (what)
tTtvoiceless alveolar plosiveb., m. tájna (secret)
t͡sCcvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricate b. ́rkva m. cr̩kva (church)
t͡ʃČčvoiceless palato-alveolar affricateb. čákaj m. čékaj (wait)
t̠͡ɕĆćvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricatereg., ind. ćékaj (wait)
uUuclose back rounded vowelb., m. dúpki (wholes)
vVvvoiced labiodental fricativeb., m. kráva (cow)
wWwvoiced labio-velar approximantbeb. rábut'i(worked)
ɯɯɯclose back unrounded vowelanat. bɯ́lgar (Bulgarian)
xXxvoiceless velar fricativeb. prax (dust)
yÜüclose front rounded vowerup. dünjáta (the world)
zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantb. zimə́  m. zíma (winter)
ʑŹźvoiced alveolo-palatal sibilantreg., ind. źɤlt  m. (yellow)
ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantb. žɤlt  m. žolt  (yellow)

 

Alternative signs
´main stress
`secondary stress
˝stress with emphasis
'palatalization of previous sound, e.g. meǵu (between)
ˌsyllabization of consonant, e.g. mak. pr̩f, cf. bulg. pɤrf (first) 
 ̥ closing
 ̝raising
ːlength (may be indicated also by repetition of symbol)
< > direct speech
[?]not deciphered segment
[...]omission of not relevant segment
()omission of confusing element
( )reduced in quantity
change of speaker
-(a) pair words
(b) contraction
(c) additional syllable (in songs, poetry)
--accidental pause, unfinished word
---accidental pause, unfinished phrase
 
Abbreviations
anat. Anatolian Bulgarian
b.Bulgarian
bb.Banat Bulgarian
beb.Bessarabian Bulgarian
ind.individual
m.  Macedonian
reg.regional (diverse)
rup.Rup
wb.Wallachian Bulgarian

       

Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.

VLACH symbols for Greek varieties

VLACH symbols for Greek varieties

VLACH uses IPA for all Greek varieties, with the only difference, that VLACH allows match cases, prefers (´) for accentuation, (') for indication of palatalization and (-) instead of liaison, e.g. IPA: tiɲ‿ɟirjaˈcí becomes VLACH tiɲ-g'irjak'í (on Sunday). The following list of examples will be completed soon. 

IPA  listen  VLACHphonetic descriptionexample (translation)
a (ɐ)Aanear-open (central) unrounded vowelmána(mother)
æÆænear-open front unrounded vowelP parχáræ (highland)
bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebrostá (in front)
cK'k'voiceless palatal plosivek'e (and)
çÇçvoiceless palatal fricativeçeretó (I greet)
ɕ (s̠)ɕɕvoiceless alveolo-palatal sibilantMTT ɕtar' (wheat)
dDdvoiced alveolar plosivedíno (dress)
ðÐðvoiced dental fricativeðío (two)
d͡zʣʣvoiced alveolar sibilant affricateʣépi (pocket)
d͡ʒDʒdʒvoiced palato-alveolar affricateKA gaí (xxx)
d̠͡ʑʥʥvoiced alveolo-palatal affricateind., reg. ʥepi (pocket)
e (ɛ)Ee(close-)mid front unrounded voweléna (one)
ǝƎǝmid central vowel p.
ɛ open-mid front unrounded vowelsee e 
fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativeaftós (this)
ɡGgvoiced velar plosiveth. galabók' (corn)
ɣƔɣvoiced velar fricativeavɣó (egg)
iIiclose front unrounded voweltris (three)
ɪɪɪnear-close near-front unrounded vowelxxx
jJjpalatal approximant 
ʝꞲʝvoiced palatal fricativeʝaʝá (grandmother)
ɟG'g'voiced palatal plosiveáŋɟelos (angle)
kKkvoiceless velar plosivekaló (good)
lLlalveolar lateral approximantálos (other)
ɫⱢɫvelarized alveolar lateral approximantmak. áɫos (other)
ʎʎʎpalatal lateral approximantaŋgaʎá (hug)
mMmbilabial nasalmílo (apple)
nNnalveolar nasalna (mother)
ɲƝɲpalatal nasalreg. mɲa (one)
χroɲá
ŋŊŋvelar nasalaŋgaʎá (hug)
o (ɔ)Oo(close-)mid back rounded vowelkaló(good)
ɶɶɶopen front rounded vowelT
ɔ---open-mid back rounded vowelsee o
ɤɤɤclose-mid back unrounded vowel 
pPpvoiceless bilabial plosivepróto (first)
r, ɾRr ɾɾalveolar trill or tapçéri, çéɾi (hand)
   çe (hand)
s (s̠)Ssvoiceless alveolar sibilantsitári (wheat)
ʃƩʃvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantp. ʃéri (hand)
tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivekrátos (state)
tj t' Sukrátˈ
θΘθvoiceless dental fricativeθe (every)
t͡sTsʦvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricatekoríʦi (maid)
t͡ʃTʃtʃ voiceless palato-alveolar affricatetʃufálin (head)
SI tʃerási (cherry)
t̠͡ɕTɕtɕvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricatereg. kurí (maid)
uUuclose back rounded vowelkufós (deaf)
vVvvoiced labiodental fricativevárka (boat)
χ voiceless uvular fricativeχtipó (I hit)
y close front rounded vowelT
z voiced alveolar sibilantzúse (lived)
ʑ voiced alveolo-palatal sibilantMTT ʑúɕi (lived)
ʒ voiced palato-alveolar sibilantMTT karpúʒa (melones)
 
ALTERNATIVE SIGNS
´main stress
`secondary stress
˝stress with emphasis
'palatalization of previous sound, e.g. meǵu (between)
ˌsyllabization of consonant, e.g. mak. pr̩f, cf. bulg. pɤrf (first) 
 ̥ closing
 ̝raising
ːlength (may be indicated also by repetition of symbol)
< > direct speech
[?]not deciphered segment
[...]omission of not relevant segment
( )reduced in quantity
-(a) pair words, e.g. 
(b) contraction, e.g. 
(c) additional syllable (in songs, poetry), 
--accidental pause, unfinished word
---accidental pause, unfinished phrase
 
ABBREVIATIONS
APIAttica Ionian Peloponnesus
CaCappadocia
CCCyclades, Crete
CyCyprus
EREpirus, Roumeli
hnhalf northern
MTTMacedonia, Thrace, Thessaly 
PPontus
SaSaracatsan (=)
SISouth Italy
Ts  Tsakonia

    VLACH symbols for Judeo-Spanish

    VLACH symbols for Judeo-Spanish

    IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample
    aAanear-open central unrounded vowelarvoléz (trees)
    ãÃãopen front unrounded nasal vowelfrãnsé (French)
    æÄänear-open front unrounded vowelpänǧeré (window)
    bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebivír (to live)
    βɃƀvoiced bilabial approximantƀro (book)
    dDdvoiced alveolar plosivedezír (to say)
    ðĐđvoiced dental fricativeđre (green/Muslim)
    d͡ʒǦǧvoiced palato-alveolar affricateǧústo (right)
    eEeclose-mid front unrounded vowelermózo (beautiful)
    fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativefrãnsé (French)
    ɡGgvoiced velar plosiveagóra (now)
    ɣƔɣvoiced velar fricativeavaγár (slowly / gradually)
    hHhvoiceless glottal fricativehabér (news)
    iIiclose front unrounded voweližíko (boy)
    ɨclose central unrounded vowelkarištıreár (to mix)
    jYypalatal approximantyamár (to call)
    kKkvoiceless velar plosivekwálo (which)
    lLlalveolar lateral approximantlavóro (work)
    ɫɫɫvelarized alveolar lateral approx. Ałmán (German)
    mMmbilabial nasalmeldár (to read)
    nNnalveolar nasalnatúra (nature)
    ɲÑñpalatal nasalañáda (year)
    oOoclose-mid back rounded vowelkávzo (reason, cause)
    ɔ̃Õõopen-mid back rounded nasal vowel o fõ (fully, essentially)
    œÖöopen-mid front rounded vowelebrö́ (Hebrew)
    pPpvoiceless bilabial plosiveplazér (pleasure)
    rRralveolar trillriír (to laugh)
    ɾɾɾalveolar tapavláɾ (to talk)
    ʁRr rrvoiced uvular fricativerra (war)
    sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantsínko (five)
    ʃŠšvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantšos (far)
    tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivetádre (late)
    θΘθvoiceless dental fricativedeθír (to say)
    t͡sʦʦvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricateettsetéra (etc.)
    t͡ʃČčvoiceless palato-alveolar affricatemúnčo (much/a lot)
    uUuclose back rounded vowelǧudéo (Jewish)
    vVvvoiced labiodental fricativesivdád (city)
    wWwvoiced labio-velar approximantgwérko (clever)
    xKk khvoiceless velar fricativekhazinúra (disease)
    yÜüclose front rounded vowelrepüblík (republic)
    zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantazér (to do)
    ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantmužér (woman)
     
    Alternative signs
    ´main stress
    `secondary stress
    ˝stress with emphasis
    'palatalization of previous sound
     ̥ closing
    ːlength (maybe indicated also by repetition of symbol)
    < > direct speech
    [?]not deciphered segment
    [...]omission of not relevant segment
    ( )phoneme reduced in quantity
    -contraction
    --accidental pause, unfinished word
    ---accidental pause, unfinished phrase

     

    Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.

    To top

    VLACH symbols for Kalmyk

    VLACH symbols for Kalmyk

    IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample (translation)
    aAanear-open central unrounded vowelaavə́ (father)
    æÄänear-open front unrounded vowelnär (party)
    bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebu (rifle)
    βꞵꞵvoiced bilabial approximantolád (becoming)
    dDdvoiced alveolar plosivedääčɪ́ (warrior)
    d͡ʒǦǧvoiced palato-alveolar affricateǧirγɪ́l (happiness)
    eEeclose-mid front unrounded vowelnemhə́ (to add)
    əƏəmid central vowel haahə́ (to close)
    ɛEeopen-mid front unrounded voweleŋkɪ́r (dear)
    fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativeFéliks (Felix) 
    ɡGgvoiced velar plosivegün (deep)
    ɠƓɠvoiced velar implosiveɠanzə́ (pipe)
    ɣƔγvoiced velar fricativeγarhə́ (to go out)
    iIiclose front unrounded vowelinähə́ (to laugh)
    ɨYyclose central unrounded vowelcaasýn (paper)
    ɪnear-close near-front unrounded vowel kiilɪ́g (shirt); irǧɪ́ (came)
    jJjpalatal approximantbajír (joy)
    kKkvoiceless velar plosiveküükɪ́n (girl)
    lLlalveolar lateral approximantbuulimǧɪ́ (praise)
    mMmbilabial nasalmaná (our)
    nNnalveolar nasalnarýn (sun)
    ŋŊŋvelar nasalŋgə́ (news)
    oOoclose-mid back rounded vowelolhә́ (to find)
    ɵÖöclose-mid central rounded vowelödɪ́r (day)
    pPpvoiceless bilabial plosivepatír (apartment)
    rRralveolar trillurýl (lips)
    sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantsarúl (bright)
    ʂŠšvoiceless retroflex sibilantšovún (bird)
    ʃŠšvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantšovún (bird) 
    tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivetavýn (five)
    t͡sCcvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricatecaγán (white)
    t͡ʃČčvoiceless palato-alveolar affricatečinɪ́r (quality)
    t̠͡ɕČčvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricatečinɪ́r (quality)
    uUuclose back rounded voweluuhə́ (to drink)
    vVvvoiced labiodental fricativekevthə́ (to lie down)
    xHhvoiceless velar fricativehur (rain)
    χHhvoiceless uvular fricativehur (rain)
    yÜüclose front rounded vowelükɪ́r (cow)
    zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantzaján (fate)
    ʐŽžvoiced retroflex sibilantžuulík (rogue)
    ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantžuulík (rogue)

     

    Alternative signs
    ´main stress
    `secondary stress
    ˝stress with emphasis
    'palatalization of previous sound, e.g. mat'hýr (crooked)
    ːlength (may be indicated also by repetition of symbol)
    < > direct speech
    [?]not deciphered segment
    [...]omission of not relevant segment
    ( )phoneme reduced in quantity
    -(a) pair words, e.g. edɪ́l-ahú (household, farm)
    (b) contraction, e.g. kelä́d-äänä́ (is saying, is telling)
    (c) additional syllable (in songs, poetry), e.g. bilä́-lä(was)
    --accidental pause, unfinished word
    ---accidental pause, unfinished phrase

     

    Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.

    VLACH symbols for Meglen Vlach

    VLACH symbols for Meglen Vlach

    IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample (translation)
    aAanear-open central unroundedcá (house)
    bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebag (I put)
    çHʲhʲvoiceless palatal fricativeári, ári, ári (gall)
    ɕŚśvoiceless alveolo-palatal sibilantśóră (sun)
    dDdvoiced alveolar plosivedínti (tooth)
    ðΔδvoiced dental fricativeδore̯án (for free) Gr.
    d͡zʣʣvoiced alveolar sibilant affricateʣe̯ána (at the top)
    d͡ʒDždžvoiced palato-alveolar affricateam (glass)
    d̠͡ʑDźdźvoiced alveolo-palatal affricatee̯ána (at the top)
    eEeclose-mid front unrounded vowelmeš (months )
    əĂămid central vowel cásă (house); lnă (wool) Ts.
    ɛƐɛopen-mid front unrounded vowelfέti (girls)
    fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativeáflu (finds)
    ɡGgvoiced velar plosivegúvă (whole)
    hHhvoiceless glottal fricativehránă (food)
    iIiclose front unrounded voweldínti (tooth)
    ɪɪɪnear-close near-front unroundeddέdɪ(he/she gave)
    --- Ĭĭpalatal semi-vowelĭa (bath), ĭéstɪ (he/she is)
    jJjpalatal approximantjo (I)
    kCcvoiceless velar plosivecásă (house)
     Kʲkʲvoiceless palatal plosiveári (he/she loses)
    lLlalveolar lateral approximantlup (wolf), laf (word)
    ɫⱢɫvelarized alveolar lateral approx.ɫup (wolf) ind.
    ʎLʲlʲpalatal lateral approximantúmniʦa (Skra village)
    mMmbilabial nasalmári (big)
    nNnalveolar nasalnári (nose)
    ɲƝɲpalatal nasalăɲgʲós (below)
    oOoclose-mid back rounded vowelfoc (fire)
    ɔƆɔopen-mid back rounded vowellɔ́nă (wool); rușɔ́ni (shame)
    pPpvoiceless bilabial plosivelup(wolf)
    rRralveolar trillráʦi (cold)
    sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantsóră (sun)
    ʃŠšvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantúšă (door)
    tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivetétă (aunt)
    t͡sʦʦvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricate ʦap (he-goat)
    t͡ʃČčvoiceless palato-alveolar affricatefičór (boy)
    t̠͡ɕĆćvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricatefićór (boy)
    uUuclose back rounded vowelCúpa (Koupa village)
    vVvvoiced labiodental fricativeváli (valley)
    wŬŭvoiced labio-velar approximantneáŭă (snow) ind.
    χvoiceless uvular fricativeχránă (food) ind., Gr.
    zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantzắʦi (he/she says)
    ʑŹźvoiced alveolo-palatal sibilantźuníćă (row); źoc (dance)
    ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantžuníʦă (row); žoc (dance)
     
    Diphthongs and triphthongs
    aiai̯ăngʲisái̯ (I dreamt)
    auáu̯gáu̯(whole)
    eae̯áspune̯á(he/she was saying); fe̯á (the girl)
    eiéividéi (you saw)
    iai̯ábi̯á (he/she drunk)
    iei̯évi̯ézi̯ (you see); ʦăni̯ém (we hold)
    euéu̯vidéu̯ (they saw)
    oao̯á  do̯ármi(he/she is sleeping); o̯árbă (blind); so̯ácră (mother in law)
    oiói̯du̯ói̯lę̀ (the two); cɔ́i̯ni (dog); pɔ́i̯ni (bread)
    uau̯álu̯á(taken); su̯ácră (mother in law)
    uo  u̯ó u̯óm (person); fiču̯ór (boy)
    uoi  u̯ói̯  du̯ói̯li  (the two)
     
    Alternative signs
    ´main stress
    `secondary stress
    ˝stress with emphasis
    ʲpalatalization of previous sound, e.g. ári (he/she loses)
     ̥ closing
    ːlength (maybe indicated also by repetition of symbol)
    < > direct speech
    [?]not deciphered segment
    [...]omission of not relevant segment
    ( )phoneme reduced in quantity
    -contraction, e.g. s-dúsi (he/she went)
    --accidental pause, unfinished word
    ---accidental pause, unfinished phrase
     
    Abbreviations
    Gr.in Greek loanwords only
    ind.  individual pronouncation
    Ts.Tsrnareca dialect

           

    Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.

    VLACH symbols for Romani

    VLACH symbols for Romani

    IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample (translation)
    aAanear-open central unrounded vowelamén (we; us)
    bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebostáni (watermelon)
    dDdvoiced alveolar plosiveadavá (this)
    ðÐðvoiced dental fricativeepiðís (because)
    d͡ʒDž džvoiced palato-alveolar affricateuvlí (woman)
    ɛEeopen-mid front unrounded vowelvàkeréla (to tell)
    əƏəmid central vowel čaləšə́r (to work hard)
    fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativefamílija (family)
    ɡGgvoiced velar plosivegáv (village)
    Gj gjvoiced velar-glide sequencežìvingjám (we lived)
    ɣƔɣvoiced velar fricativeipoɣrapsarén (signed)
    hHhvoiceless glottal fricativedaháni (tobacco)
    iIiclose front unrounded vowelsivéla (to sew)
    jJjpalatal approximantsijám (we are)
    kKkvoiceless velar plosiveàkaná (now)
     Kh khaspirated voiceless velar plosivekhujibé (fighting)
    Kj kjvoiceless velar glide sequencekjinéla (to buy)
    lLlalveolar lateral approximantadalá (these)
    ʎĽľpalatal approximantdžuvľá (woman)
    mMmbilabial nasalmanúš  (man; human)
    nNnalveolar nasaln(no; not)
    ŋŇňpalatal nasalsosteňá (britches)
    ɔOoopen-mid back rounded voweló(he)
    pPpvoiceless bilabial plossivečororipé (poverty)
    Ph phaspirated voiceless bilabial plosivephral (brother)
    rRralveolar trillšuká(good)
    sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantsar (like; as)
    ʃŠšvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantmurš (man; male)
    tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivetétka (aunt)
     Th thaspirated voiceless alveolar plosiveathár (from here)
    θΘθvoiceless dental fricativeθapsardésas (they had)
    t͡sCcvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricateceló (whole)
    t͡ʃČčvoiceless plato-alveolar affricatečéňka (corn)
    tʃʰ Čh čhaspirated voiceless palato-alveolar affricatečhinéla (to cut)
    uUuclose-back rounded vowelbutí (work)
    vVvvoiced labiodental fricativeživóto (life)
    xXxvoiceless velar fricativoxtó (eight)
    zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantzda (landlord)
    ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantšužó (nice)

    VLACH symbols for Romanian varieties

    VLACH symbols for Romanian varieties

    IPA  listen  VLACH phonetic descriptionexample (translation)
    aAanear-open central unroundedásta (this)
    bBbvoiced bilabial plosivebárbă (beard)
    cK'k'voiceless palatal plosiveok(eyes)
    ɕŚśvoiceless alveolo-palatal sibilantmold.śe (do)
    dDdvoiced alveolar plosivedínte (tooth)
    d' D'd'voiced alveolar palatalized plosiveMold. d'ínt'i (tooth)
    d͡zḐḑvoiced alveolar sibilant affricatereg. îc (I say)
    d͡ʒǦǧvoiced palato-alveolar affricateǧam (glas)
    d͡ʑǴǵvoiced alveolo-palatal affricateBoya. śîǵέ (he/she sat)
    eEeclose-mid front unrounded vowelmérǧe (you go)
    əĂămid central unrounded vowel cásă (house)
    ɛƐɛopen-mid front unrounded vowelreg. ľεmn (wood)
    fFfvoiceless labiodental fricativefăínă (wheat)
    ɟG'g'voiced palatal plosiveg'ață (ice)
    ɡGgvoiced velar plosiveslúgă (slave)
    hHhvoiceless glottal fricativehránă (food)
    iIiclose front unrounded voweldínte (tooth)
    ɪɪɪnear-close near-front unroundedmold. védɪ (he/she sees)
    ɨÎîclose central unrounded vowelrî́(river)
    j---Ĭĭpalatal semi-vowelĭéste (he/she is)
    jJjpalatal approximantreg. jo (I)
    kCcvoiceless velar plosivecásă (house)
    lLlalveolar lateral approximantlup (wolf)
    ɫⱢɫvelarized alveolar lateral approx.mold. ɫup (wolf)
    ʎL'l'palatal lateral approximantreg. ľεmn (wood)
    mMmbilabial nasalmáre (big)
     Ḿḿbilabial palatalized nasalBan. áre (honey)
    nNnalveolar nasalnáre (nose)
    ɲŃńpalatal nasalbań (money)
    ŋŊŋvelar nasalî́ŋcă (still)
    o (ɔ)Oo(close-)mid back rounded vowelfoc (fire)
    ɔƆɔopen-mid back rounded vowelArd. ţɔ́le (blankets)
    ɤÎîclose-mid back unrounded reg. pî́ine (bread)
    pPpvoiceless bilabial plosivepul (the wolf)
    rRralveolar trillréč(cold)
     Ŕŕalveolar palatalized trilllumănắ (candles)
    ʀƦʀuvular fricativeind. ʀéče (cold)
    sSsvoiceless alveolar sibilantsă (house)
    ʃȘșvoiceless palato-alveolar sibilantúșă (door)
    tTtvoiceless alveolar plosivesfátul (the advice)
    t'T't'voiceless palatal-alveolar plosiveArd. copt'í (children)
    t͡sȚțvoiceless alveolar sibilant affricate puțín (few)
    t͡ʃČčvoiceless palato-alveolar affricateč(what)
    t̠͡ɕĆćvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricateBan. fraće (brother)
    uUuclose back rounded vowelbun (good)
    vVvvoiced labiodental fricativevále (valley)
    wŬŭvoiced labio-velar approximantcafeáŭă (coffee)
    zZzvoiced alveolar sibilantzút (seen)
    ʑŹźvoiced alveolo-palatal sibilantBoya. źos (down)
    ʒŽžvoiced palato-alveolar sibilantžos (down)

     

    Alternative signs
    ´main stress
    `secondary stress
    ˝stress with emphasis
    (')palatalization of previous sound, e.g. boya. húnd'e (where); can be also indicated as acute above the letters in case of m, n, p, r, e.g. rî́nduŕ (rows)
     ̥ closing
    ːlength (may be indicated also by repetition of symbol)
    <>  direct speech
    [?]not deciphered segment
    [...]omission of not relevant segment
    ( )phoneme reduced in quantity
    -contraction, e.g. s-a dus (he/she went)
    --accidental pause, unfinished word, e.g. te-am pu--, te-am pupát (I ki-, I kissed you)
    ---unfinished phrase, e.g. am mers la --- și am plecát (we went to --- and went away)

     

    Abbreviations
    Ard.Ardeal
    Ban.Banat
    Boya.Boyash
    ind.individual
    Mold. Moldova
    reg.regional (diverse)
     

    Further punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons, exclamation marks and question marks, when outside the square brackets, are used as in standard punctuation.