Symposium | Vienna
Symposium | Vienna-Carnuntum
»Volksversammlung, Agone und Gladiatorenspiele im Theater von Ephesos«
Lecture, Vienna (KHM) | Gudrun Styhler-Aydın (OeAI)
»Bauopfer und Deponierungen von Banketten in Ephesos«
Lecture, Wien (KHM) | Alice Waldner (OeAI)
»Schuster, Schneider, Leinenweber: Menschen und ihre Berufe in Ephesos«
Lecture, Vienna (KHM) | Veronika Scheibelreiter-Gail (OeAI)
»Gräber in Kontaktregionen«
»Sanctuaries in the Danubian provinces – new results and perspectives«
»Götter und ihre Tempel in Ephesos«
Lecture, Vienna (KHM) | Sabine Ladstätter (OeAI)
S. Groh »Ager Solvensis (Noricum)«
»Religion an den hellenistischen Königshöfen. Eine Spurensuche«
e-Lecture | Gregor Weber (Augsburg University)
The main purpose of the department »Historical Archaeology« is fundamental research in the discipline of historical archaeology. This occurs with neither a chronological nor a geographical limitation, nevertheless the focal point lies on Greek and Roman cultural circles. The numerous national and international projects of the Institute are distinguished by interdisciplinary field research, and the study of primary sources as well as their cultural-historical evaluation. Under the premise of understanding historical cultures in their entirety, the focus lies on the one hand on the investigation of urban and rural settlement spaces from historical, topographical, architectonic, economic, social and ecological perspectives; in this manner, landscapes and spaces beyond the individual settlements are also examined. On the other hand, studies of objects and monuments situate humans as actors, as well as their products, in the central focus.
Head Sabine Ladstätter Oliver Hülden (deputy head)
Landscape-archaeological investigations at the 'Thermopylae' of the Peloponnese
E.-I. Kolia (Antikendienst Elis des Griechischen Ministeriums für Kultur und Sport) A. Vött und Team (Institut für Geographie der Universität Mainz)
Pilot project until 12/2021
Institute for Aegean Prehistory
Using geophysical and geoarchaeological methods, research has been carried out at a ›key spot‹ on the west coast of the Peloponnese lying between the lagoon of Kaiafa, the sulphur springs located there, and the fortress of Samikon. Kleidi is the site of a Bronze Age settlement in whose immediate vicinity a famous sanctuary of Poseidon, mentioned by Strabo, must have existed.
The site of Kleidi lies on the western summit of the Lapithos mountains that cut in an east-west direction through the region of Triphylia (modern Tryfilia) and extend as far as the western coast of the Peloponnese. Kleidi is located below the Classical-Hellenistic fortress at what is today Kato-Samikon. Three small hills are located in the coastal plain that covers the area of the former lagoon of Agoulinitsa. The lagoon was drained first in the late 1960s; earlier, it had extended as far as the group of hills. This fact explains the eponymous position of Kleidi that controlled the passage through the marshes until the 1960s: until the lagoon was drained, the only north-south connection on firm ground ran through here, parallel to the railway line, which was constructed in the early 20th century. The narrows at Kleidi are characterised as the ›Thermopylae of the Peloponnese‹ due to their strategic significance and to the warm sulphur springs that not only arise ca. 1.3 km to the south near Kaiafa, but also at a number of places around the group of hills, and which are still used today as therapeutic baths.
History of Research at Kleidi
The site of Kleidi has been known as a Bronze Age settlement site since the excavations of Wilhelm Dörpfeld in 1908. Here Dörpfeld brought to light primarily remains of so-called Cyclopean walls and traces of a Bronze Age settlement, yet these results were never published in detail. In 1954 Nikolas Yalouris undertook excavations to the north of the large hill and published a circular tomb, which became known as a tumulus and which contained burials from the entire Mycenaean period. At the beginning of the 1980s Eleni Papakonstantinou carried out extensive excavations on the plateau of the largest hill and on its eastern flank, where she was able to confirm the existence of a cemetery of the late Middle Bronze Age and the Late Bronze Age. Most recently, in 2007 Panagiotis Moutzouridis and Kostas Nikolentzos laid out excavation trenches on the southeastern part of the hill plateau, where they also encountered Middle and Late Bronze Age settlement traces. [For the evaluation of the Bronze Age pottery in the regional context, cf. Kakovatos und Triphylien im 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr.]
Current Research in Kleidi
In 2017, a Greek-Austrian cooperative project, under the direction of Erofili-Iris Kolia and Birgitta Eder, focused on the systematic surveying of the terrain of the group of hills of Kleidi with the goal of creating, for the first time, a plan of the group of hills with its morphology and preserved building remains.
The sanctuary of Poseidon near Samikon is also assumed to be located in the coastal plain of Kleidi-Samikon, which according to Strabo (8, 3, 16) constitutes one of the essential points of reference in the description of Triphylia with the specification of distances to the north (Alpheios) and to the south (Lepreon). The sacred area, whose character was shaped by a grove of wild olive trees, ought to have formed the centre of an amphictyony of the cities of Triphylia.
The project, therefore, aims to investigate the site that, in numerous ways, can be considered as a ›key site‹: although its general location – between the Kaiafa lagoon, the sulphur springs there and the fortification of Samikon – has been established in the environs of Kleidi, the sanctuary of Poseidon has not yet been discovered. The geography of the entire region must have altered considerably since antiquity, even though the reasons for this are not yet entirely clear. It is equally uncertain how the geographical situation was in ancient times, where the coastline was located, and where the anchorage mentioned by Strabo (8, 3, 17) was located. The reconstruction of the ancient landscape is just as significant for the Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods as for the Bronze Age, in order to understand the position of Kleidi within the regional topography of Triphylia, at a key site of the Peloponnesian west coast, in a diachronic perspective.
In this sense, the project is dedicated to g archaeological and geoarchaeological exploration of this micro region in order to reconstruct of the paleo-environment and the ancient landscape. The research is carried out as a collaboration between the Service of Antiquities of Elis (E.-I. Kolia), the ÖAI Athens (B. Eder), in cooperation with A. Vött and his team from the Geographical Institute of the University of Mainz.
In the early 1st millennium B.C., new regional identities evolved in the Aegean region, and at the same time a supraregional shared identity was manifested under the self-designation of Hellenes. The transformation of the Bronze Age world of the 2nd millennium B.C. and the cultural heritage of the Mycenaean period, as well as early Iron Age Greece in its regional and supraregional dimension, form the focus of the work of this research group. In this fascinating epoch, the political, economic and social foundations for the specific character of the Greek world of states were created.
The research group »Early Greece« is dedicated to the study of the early Greek area with its various cultural identities and their diachronic transformations. The borders between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, which are based in the artificial separation of the respective research traditions, are consciously transcended. The projects are concerned with the development of settlements and sanctuaries in their specific cultural landscape. The development of new political centres and the increasing significance of sanctuaries in the early Iron Age played a leading role in the emergence of regional and supraregional identities in the early Greek world.
Team Walter Gauß Georg Ladstätter
Head Birgitta Eder
Vegetation and land use changes in the greater Alpine region during the last 15,000 years
Daniela Festi Andreas G. Heiss
Kuratorium Pfahlbauten OÖ Landeskultur GmbH
since March 2021
OÖ Landeskultur GmbH
Project Pile dwellings
Since millennia, humans have increasingly been shaping the landscape in and around the Alps, leaving clear signs of their activities. By analysing the pollen content of natural and anthropogenic archives we reconstruct past vegetation and obtain useful information on human activities like agriculture, husbandry practices, woodland use, and fire history.
The Greater Alpine Region stretches geographically from 4°–19° E to 43°–49° N and is an exceptionally diverse area both from a vegetational and cultural point of view, where since millennia humans and climate have been co-shaping the vegetation and landscape. During the last 6000 years, the human factor became increasingly important in this process, due to the intensification of human settlement activities in the region, which has been home to a great variety of ancient cultures. Such cultural groups often had specific subsistence strategies and brought about innovations, which impacted the vegetation in specific ways.
In this context, our goal is to use pollen as a proxy to reconstruct former vegetation landscapes in which ancient societies developed in the Greater Alpine Region. Furthermore, we aim at understanding past human-environment relationship by uncovering evidence of a variety of human practices like agriculture, transhumance, wood clearances by cutting and fire. This comprehension is directly linked to our present, as the cultural landscapes we experience today are a result of the millennia of human-environment interactions. Among the best examples of this process are the numerous UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites present in the region.
Mooswinkel am Mondsee: Vegetation History and Human Impact
Mooswinkel is part of the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Sites “Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps“, and it is located on the north-eastern shore of the Mondsee. The settlement is relatively small, with settlement phases dating back to the mid-4th millennium B.C. Mooswinkel is characterized by an exceptional state of preservation and is now the third lakeshore dwelling site to be discovered at the Mondsee, after those of Scharfling and See.
By analysing the pollen content of sediment cores extracted from the pile dwelling site, we will reconstruct the past vegetation growing near the settlement, revealing the types and entity of human impact on the environment, including agricultural practices, use of fire and wood cutting. This information will be combined with the results of archaeobotanical analyses and integrated to the data provided by other disciplines to gain a comprehensive picture of the environment and life at the time of the settlement.
Diachronic Population Studies in the Microregion of Southern Carinthia in the Centuries of Upheaval ›from Inland Noricum up to Carantania‹
Nina Brundke Helmut Schwaiger Magdalena Srienc
OeAW-IMAFO Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie Gemeinde Globasnitz Landesmuseum Kärnten Poznańskie Laboratorium Radiowęglowe Universität Bern, Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Abt. Anthropologie Universität Wien, Department für Evolutionäre Anthropologie
OeAW-OeAI DOC-Stipendium der ÖAW Land Kärnten, Abteilung 14 – Kunst und Kultur Gemeinde Globasnitz
Human skeletal remains from archaeological excavations are the most immediate source of information about life in the past. Even after the death of an individual, these remains offer insights into age, sex, illness, nutrition, origin, family relations and physical activity. The bioarchaeological investigations of the Late Antique up to Mediaeval populations from the Jauntal region aim to obtain information regarding living conditions during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages.
The transitional period from antiquity to the early Middle Ages in the 5th and 6th centuries was, in central Europe, strongly characterised by large-scale migrations and the expansion of Christianity. The upheavals that resulted influenced the further development of the cultural, religious and political land map of Europe, as we know it today. In spite of the existence of numerous historical and archaeological sources from this period, many questions regarding the development and structure of the Mediaeval population remain open.
The bioarchaeological investigation of human skeletal remains from Late Antique and Mediaeval grave sites near Globasnitz, as well as from Mediaeval burials near Jaunstein, should enable a comparison of the differing groups that lived in the Jauntal during this dynamic phase of transition. The knowledge gain about factors such as quality of life, dietary conditions and epidemics, migration or violent conflicts represents a central element for the understanding of the behaviours of individuals and groups in this microregion of the eastern Alps. Embedded in their historical and archaeological context, these results will contribute substantially to a better understanding of one of the most important periods in the history of Europe.
Hemmaberg/gora svete Heme bei Globasnitz/Globasnica: Living Environment. A bioarchaeological characterisation of state of health and living conditions in the transitional period from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages
Archaeological finds indicate that at this time period the local population withdrew from the former road station near Globasnitz to the nearby Hemmaberg. At the same time, grave goods and historical sources indicate that at least some of the burials in Globasnitz originate from Ostrogothic military units. These had been established by the Ostrogoth King Theoderic in order to protect the northern border of his kingdom. In this way, both settlements are perfect case studies for the investigation of origin, living conditions and cohabitation of population groups with potentially differing ethnic affiliation.
About 143 human skeletons from the large gravesite on the Hemmaberg and 422 from the burial field near Globasnitz at the foot of the Hemmaberg constitute the main data set of the current analyses. In addition to the traditional methods for determining age at the time of death, identification of sex, and diagnosis of illnesses, modern processes such as the analysis of old DNA (aDNA) and stable isotope (C, N, S, Sr) analysis will be employed, in order to achieve a detailed picture of the dietary composition and also the geographical origin of the individuals.
Jaunstein/Podjuna: (Early)-Mediaeval Cemetery. Research into the lived environment of Slavic populations in the eastern Alpine region
The goal of the systematic investigation of the church and cemetery in Jaunstein is to reconstruct the living conditions in the region in the early and high Mediaeval period, and to clarify the chronology of the church. The evaluation of the 130 burials and the stratigraphy of the church provide the data basis. At first the fine chronology of the burials will be determined, based on the stratigraphy, the dating of informative elements of clothing, as well as 14C dates. Subsequently, osteological and paleopathological analyses, accompanied by aDNA and isotopic analyses, will provide information regarding diet, stress- and deficiency diseases, pathologies, yet also social and sex-specific differences. This project is closely dovetailed with the investigations of the burial sites at Hemmaberg and Globasnitz, both conceptually and methodologically, which is of special interest particularly for the clarification of questions of continuity.
The chronology of the church building is meanwhile particularly interesting, since until now no Mediaeval church has been archaeologically documented for lower Carinthia, and also written references are generally substantially later. This phenomenon is apparent in similar form also for Jaunstein/Podjuna, where the oldest known burials to date point to a church building in the 8th century, whereas the first written references nevertheless are dated to 1154. The excavations should contribute to elucidating this question, while they should also enable architectonic insights into this early church building.
Diachronic Research into Fishing Traditions and Population Dynamics of Fish
Universität Wien, VIAS
OeAW-OeAI Universität Wien, VIAS
Hornstaad-Hörnle 1A: late Neolithic fishery
Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart
OeAW-OeAI Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart
Mooswinkel am Mondsee: fish remains
Universität Wien, VIAS Kuratorium Pfahlbauten (overall direction) OÖ Landesmuseum (overall direction)
OeAW-OeAI Kuratorium Pfahlbauten OÖ Landesmuseum Universität Wien, VIAS
Fish and fishing are foodstuff and an activity that humans have consumed and performed since time immemorial. In diachronic studies, technical developments of fishing in the sea as well as in fresh water can be understood and reconstructed. The preference of certain consumer groups for specific fish will equally be elucidated, as will developments in fish farming and fish breeding.
Hadersdorf am Kamp: the fish remains from the modern in-filling of a latrine
During renovations of the council house of the market town of Hadersdorf-Kammern (Lower Austria) an old well was brought to light in 1991. Before its infilling, the shaft was most recently used as a latrine up until the 17th century. Corresponding to the particular find circumstances in a latrine are the finds which, on the one hand brought to light in the course of excavations, and on the other hand obtained from numerous sediment samples, can be described as very well preserved. The particularly favourable circumstances of preservation and the partially direct insertion make latrines a very special repository, also for fish remains.
At all events, fish were an important foodstuff in the Mediaeval and modern periods, not only due to the strict rules for the period of fasting. The latrines, often full of digested and undigested fish remains, provide evidence for the entire spectrum of fish types in the diet. In addition to the fishing in natural waters, fish farming played an important role; at that time the most important fish was, as today, the carp. As ecological indicators, fish can also provide evidence, whether they were caught in fast-running waters, such as the common barbel, or in standing waters, such as the common roach. Small bones which can be preserved in latrines provide evidence of an intense usage of very small and also very young fish, often less than 10 cm in size.
The intensive fish farming activity and the fishing of such small fish may be an expression of an at least temporary very high demand for fish. Accompanying both of these strategies of provision, preserved marine fish were imported in large quantities and purchased for the household. Although remains of stockfish could not be identified in this latrine, bone remains of salted herring are present in the finds in large numbers.
Hornstaad-Hörnle 1A at the Bodensee: Late Neolithic fishery in the lakeshore settlement
The settlement on the south-west shore of the lower lake is evidence of one of the oldest late Neolithic settlement phases at the Bodensee in south-west Germany; here, fish were an important source of nourishment. The processing of the fishbones is carried out in the course of cooperation with E. Stephan (State Office for Monument Preservation in the Regional Authority of Stuttgart). To date, a total of more than 10,200 fishbones with a weight of ca. 0.5 kg could be processed.
A high proportion of the fishbones is charred and strongly fragmented, and could therefore not be more precisely identified. Nevertheless, the distribution of the caught and consumed fish is thoroughly species-rich. The ensemble of finds is clearly dominated by pike, whereas the other types of fish are present only in smaller find density. The second most common group are the types of carp, whereby the small bone remains were mostly not precisely determined; common barbel, common rudd and the bones of a tench could, however, be identified. In addition to the numerous perch, only one single bone of a pikeperch was found. Due to the lack of certainty in identification based on the fragmentary and mostly badly burned state of preservation of the vertebra, whitefish and trout could not be determined; the more complete bones ought, however, to originate rather from whitefish than from trout. Finally, fishing of wels catfish can occasionally be proven.
Ephesos: The Study of Bio-Geo-Archives in their Archaeological Context
Andreas G. Heiss Helmut Schwaiger
Universität zu Köln, Geographisches Institut, Arbeitsgruppe Geoarchäologie, Küstenmorphologie und Geochronologie Universität Hohenheim, Institut für Biologie, Fachgeb. Molekulare Botanik mit Archäobotanik RWTH Aachen, Lehrstuhl für Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstätten des Erdöls und der Kohle Medizinische Universität Wien, Institut für Spezifische Prophylaxe und Tropenmedizin
OeAW-OeAI Jubiläumsfonds der Oesterreichischen Nationalbank (Projekt 17134)
The reconstruction of the landscape and the environment in space and time is essential for the understanding of settlement areas, not least due to the massive transformations in ecological systems in part naturally caused, in part intensified by humans. The interdisciplinary projects which are housed in this department avail themselves of a variety of methods and analytical approaches, and combine archaeology and earth sciences.
Cultivation and extraction of resources leave behind traces in the environment of human settlements, for example by increased erosion of areas that are kept open, and by the discharge of organic and inorganic contaminants. In a counteraction, the landscape as a dynamic system also presents challenges to humans: erosion and silting, desertification or variations in the water table can endanger the continued existence of settlements. Geoarchaeological models and models of vegetation history, prepared from geoarchives, make comprehensible natural as well as anthropogenic transformations in settlement areas.
The Gulf of Ephesos, originally taking up the entire plain of the lower Caystros Valley, successively silted up after the Chalcolithic period, that is, after the 4th millennium B.C., due to the sedimentation of the Küçük Menderes (Little Meander) and its tributary rivers. This process was massively accelerated by anthropogenic influences after the Hellenistic period, which was probably associated with an intensification of agriculture and the deforestation of the hills and mountains in the hinterland. Today, only small residual lakes on the north flank of the valley are preserved of the former marine bay.
A functioning connection to the sea was the fundamental prerequisite for the founding of settlements in the wider area of Ephesos. The coastal transformations also subsequently brought with them a relocation of the settlement sites and the installation of new harbours. The coastal geography of the Hellenistic period was even the determining element for the new foundation of Ephesos under King Lysimachos, and during the Roman imperial period the silted-up surface areas offered, on the one hand, new building land and agricultural space, yet on the other hand the city had to be artificially connected to the sea.
The multiplicity of the sources also necessitate an interdisciplinary methodological approach that combines natural and humanistic sciences. The information stems on the one hand from historical and current maps, aerial and satellite photographs, excavation findings and geophysical surveys as well as the interpretation of historical and literary sources. In order to obtain sediments, percussion drill core probes are employed, the chronological classification of which is based on C14 dates of organic material, as well as the stratigraphy on the basis of diagnostic pottery. Pursuant to the questions posed, sedimentological, geochemical, palaeontological or also microbiological analyses will take place in specialised laboratories.
Geoarchaeological methods have long been applied in archaeology, in particular in places where excavations are not possible or are difficult to carry out. The sacred precinct of Artemis is today covered by a 7 m thick layer of alluvial deposits, the thickness of which allows no noteworthy geophysical results after a depth of 2 m. By means of systematic drilling it is not only possible to determine the extent of the temenos, but also to obtain an absolute chronology of the sequence of levels with the aid of depth profile.
Geoarchaeological research also contributes substantially to the reconstruction of the appearance of the landscape. On the coast at Pamucak, 6 km distant from Ephesos, a 9.6 m tall hill is located that today is not much heeded but which in antiquity represented an important landmark, as it marked the entrance into the bay of Ephesos. Geoarchaeological investigations have yielded the evidence that up until the later imperial period this raised land was an island, before the region gradually became marshy and, in the Late Antique period, was developed into a Christian pilgrimage site. A small harbour located in the north-east provided the pilgrims with a comfortable approach, and was connected to the harbour canal leading to Ephesos.
Diachronic Considerations about Mankind and Environment in the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Ephesos
Alfred Galik Andreas G. Heiss
Universität Wien, VIAS Michaela Popovtschak
OeAW-OeAI European Research Council Starting Grant (ERC-2010-StG 263339, PI Barbara Horejs)
Use of wood in Late Antiquity
Andreas G. Heiss
Universität Wien, VIAS KU Leuven, Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity Conservation Section Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Anthropology
The ancient diet
Martin Steskal Alfred Galik
Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology Durham University, Department of Archaeology Max-Planck-Institut für Menschheitsgeschichte Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Institut für Anatomie und Embryologie Thüringisches Landesamt für Archäologische Denkmalpflege
The Metropolis Asiae and its surroundings bear witness to an exceptionally long settlement history that begins already with the early ceramic Neolithic era. The bioarchaeological research promises to yield important information in order to better reconstruct transformations in the usage of natural resources over the millennia.
Every settlement is situated in an immediate interaction with its environment, and transforms the natural landscape into a cultural landscape. Forests are cleared, slopes are terraced, marshy plains are drained in order to gain fields and pasture land. Natural resources such as water, cultivated and wild plants, wood, wild and domesticated animals, metals and stone are accessed and developed. Raw materials are processed, foodstuffs are prepared. The research projects presented here make use of biogenic materials in order to contribute to the reconstruction of such manners of usage in the settlement area of Ephesos. To this end, the projects focus on a variety of themes such as agriculture, nutritional health and cuisine, trade and distribution structures, social stratification, as well as forest and wood management and construction.
Economic systems, subsistence, and ecological and environmental-historical transformations
The excavations in Ephesos provide the opportunity to study diachronic developments in nutrition, animal and plant usage, and ecological conditions in the close surroundings of Ephesos, and to consider them embedded in their archaeological and – where possible – also historical contexts. When observed over longer periods, considerable alterations in, for example, husbandry of domesticated animals can be recognised. Whereas in the prehistoric period, sheep and goats were important domesticated animals, domestic swine cannot be identified in great numbers. In the imperial period, on the contrary, pigs were more in demand, and above all the meat of the suckling pig was of culinary importance. In the prehistoric era of the later settlement area, the coastal region was still exploited for fishing, while later on the original marine coast silted up more and more, which is why primarily freshwater fish from the Little Meander river and surrounding bodies of water are found in the Roman contexts from Terrace Slope House 2. Meanwhile, in the botanic spectrum of finds from the early period primarily barley is apparent, in contrast to the important role durum wheat played later on in antiquity. Fruit groves such as figs and wine, in contrast, are found almost continually in the ensembles of finds.
Use of wood in Late Antiquity and the Early Byzantine Period
The wide-spread destruction by fire in the 7th century A.D. resulted in large amounts of wood being preserved in charred form in the Late Antique-Mediaeval city quarter south of the Church of St. Mary. The goal of the project is to disentangle this almost incalculable find ensemble, and to outline an overall picture of the former wooden inventory. Until now more than 6,000 pieces of charred wood have been evaluated. Based on evaluation of findspot and find context, the most important construction woods – deciduous oaks as well as pine and fir – could be addressed. The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved, carved furniture ensemble out of walnut and yew represents the preliminary highpoint of the ongoing investigations, and raises questions, furthermore, about the trade in wood with the Black Sea region.
The ancient diet: Isotope analyses of humans and animals
In Ephesos, comprehensive analyses of stable isotopes are carried out not only in the context of research into the necropoleis, but also for archaeozoological research, in order to be able to reconstruct the dietary habits of the Ephesian population by means of a complementary approach: representative random samples were taken from human bones from graves of the Archaic period up until the late Middle Ages, as well as from animal bones. In a current collaborative project with M. Richards and M. Wong (Simon Fraser University, Canada) and J. Montgomery (Durham University, UK) proteins are extracted, in order subsequently to identify the proportional relationships of the stable isotopes carbon, nitrogen and sulphur. Based on the resulting isotope pattern, individual components of the diet – for example vegetal as opposed to animal foodstuffs, or land animals as opposed to marine animals – should be broken down, in order to obtain as complete an understanding as possible of the food supply of the Ephesian population.
Archaeological Remains of Meals
Andreas G. Heiss
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of History and Archaeology (overall direction) BIAX Consult Donau-Universität Krems, Zentrum für Museale Sammlungswissenschaften Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart Mondsee-Museum Museum der Brotkultur, Ulm Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, UMR 7209 du CNRS (AASPE) Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum PANEUM – Wunderkammer des Brotes Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Beni Culturali Universität Basel, IPNA Universität für angewandte Kunst Wien, Institut für Konservierung und Restaurierung Universität für Bodenkultur Wien (BOKU), Institut für Botanik Universität Hohenheim, Institut für Biologie, Fachgeb. Molekulare Botanik mit Archäobotanik Universität Wien, IUHA Universität Wien, SFB Universität Wien, VIAS
European Research Council Consolidator Grant (ERC-2015-CoG 682529, PI Soultana Maria Valamoti) backaldrin International The Kornspitz Company GmbH
Roman Baked Goods in Europe
Andreas G. Heiss
BDA, Referat Naturwissenschaftliches Labor Heritage Malta, Diagnostic Science Laboratories Museum Carnuntinum Museum der Brotkultur, Ulm Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, UMR 7209 du CNRS (AASPE) Institut national de la recherches archéologiques préventives (Inrap) Université Lille, UMR 8164 du CNRS (HALMA) Université de Rouen, GRHis
OeAW-OeAI Archäologiepark BELGINUM European Research Council Consolidator Grant (ERC-2015-CoG 682529, PI Soultana Maria Valamoti)
Bread from pile dwellings
Andreas G. Heiss
BDA, Referat Naturwissenschaftliches Labor Kuratorium Pfahlbauten Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart Mondsee-Museum Museum der Brotkultur, Ulm Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum PANEUM – Wunderkammer des Brotes Universität Basel, IPNA Universität für angewandte Kunst Wien, Institut für Konservierung und Restaurierung Universität Hohenheim, Institut für Biologie, Fachgeb. Molekulare Botanik mit Archäobotanik Universität Wien, IUHA Universität Wien, SFB Universität Wien, VIAS
OeAW-OeAI Amt der OÖ Landesregierung, Direktion Kultur (Projekt Zeitensprung) European Research Council Consolidator Grant (ERC-2015-CoG 682529, PI Soultana Maria Valamoti) backaldrin International The Kornspitz Company GmbH
Archaeological finds of prepared meals, as biogenic artefacts, contain information about their ingredients as well as about the technique of their preparation. In this manner they play a key role in the examination of the material culture of nutrition, although their analysis involves numerous challenges based on preservation conditions. Methodological approaches to their decipherment have nonetheless been in development for a number of years, amongst others also at the OeAI.
The focus of this ERC-Projekts is directed towards the investigation of archaeological finds of processed foodstuffs. Within the project, a new understanding for the decision-making processes should be developed that lie behind the choice of ingredients and the applied techniques for their processing. A transdisciplinary approach combines bioarchaeological methods and methods of analysis of foodstuffs, with analyses of microwear and microfossils on archaeological coatings of the tools employed, and a broad experimental archaeological approach.
The section of the project housed at the OeAI is dedicated diachronically to all grain-based foodstuffs in their broad spectrum – from bread to beer. Based on concrete objects from a great variety of epochs, standardised methodological foundations for the analysis and interpretation of charred archaeological grain products will be developed. Many earlier analyses could be confirmed or expanded with new information, whereas the interpretation of certain finds has also been completely revised. Numerous new identifications could already be carried out, from flatbread to pastry rings up to brewing remains.
Roman Baked Goods in Europe
The diffusion of Roman agricultural and culinary culture throughout Europe brought numerous technological innovations with it. Many of these, for example the system of the villae rusticae, the introduction of Pompeian-type mills, or the installations of large-scale bakeries, were geared towards pre-industrial standardisation of chains of production and delivery in order to supply the army and the civil population of the constantly growing imperium.
The variability – frequently only climatically argued – of grain ingredients within the empire is known, for example the importance of durum wheat for the Mediterranean climate in contrast to the British isles, where dinkel wheat (spelt) dominated. The incorporation of local culinary traditions and methods of processing in this new system is until now, in contrast, still broadly unexplored. The project is dedicated to the remains of Roman period grain products from a variety of regions of the empire. Against the background of the written sources and the data from archaeobotanical ensembles of seeds and fruits, the microstructural investigation of such finds should now enable conclusions about regional diversity in eating.
Bread from pile dwellings
Since the beginning of research into the lakeshore pile dwellings in the mid-19th century, finds of actual and supposed charred ›loaves‹, found during excavations of lakeside settlements, have captured attention. The variety of methods, constantly increasing since the early 2000s, of analysis and interpretation of even extremely reduced plant parts, and the culinary objects produced from them, today enable considerably more detailed insights into the choice of ingredients and techniques of preparation. The project is dedicated to such biogenic artefacts from a variety of findspots of the UNESCO World Heritage »Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps« with the assistance of contemporary techniques of analysis. Above all, key roles are played by electron microscopy and 3D structural clarification via µCT.
3,000 Years of Subsistence and Economy in the Alpine-Danube Region
Pellendorf: Animal remains
Universität Salzburg, IMAREAL Universität Wien, IUHA, Historische Archäologie
OeAW-OeAI FWF I 1911 Internationale Projekte GAČR (I 1911)
Carnuntum: Animal remains
Universität Graz, Institut für Antike
OeAW-OeAI Amt der NÖ Landesregierung, Abt. Kunst & Kultur
Andreas G. Heiss
Université de Strasbourg, UMR 7044 Archimède (overall direction) Donau-Universität Krems, Zentrum für Museale Sammlungswissenschaften (overall direction) Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Institut für Botanik Michaela Popovtschak
OeAW-OeAI Amt der NÖ Landesregierung, Abt. Kunst & Kultur Institut Français d’Autriche-Vienne Verein der Freunde des MAMUZ
The research time frame of Historical Archaeology at the OeAI extends over three exceptionally varied millennia in Europe. Different cultures applied different strategies to come to terms with their environment and to make it usable by means of farming and forestry. Bioarchaeological research helps to understand these strategies and their transformations in a diachronic fashion.
Pellendorf/Gaweinstal: Animal remains from the early Mediaeval settlement
The excavations in the early Mediaeval settlement in Pellendorf/Gaweinstal brought to light finds such as pit houses and pits for provisions from the 7th up to the 9th/10th centuries. Numerous contexts were sampled from an archaeozoological and archaeobotanical basis.
In addition to food refuse, in many pits complete skeletons were found, whereby it was revealed that not only dogs but above all deer were also deposited. The composition of the types of animals could provide evidence for the reasons for the deposits. In addition to the information that could be obtained from the skeletons about, for example, the health condition or the age at death of the deposited animals, they also enable the habitus to be very precisely constructed for these animals of the early Mediaeval period that are so seldom studied.
Carnuntum: Differentiation between animal refuse and remains from the games in the amphitheatre of the military city
The archaeozoological material comes primarily from excavations which were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the amphitheatre of the Canabae legionis of Carnuntum, the majority of the material originating from the thick Late Antique layers in front of the East Gate, the West Gate as well as from the filling of the basin in the arena. The Late Antique finds allow the supposition that at this time venationes (animal chases) were staged in the amphitheatre.
The already analysed animal remains from these find complexes reveal a ›unified‹ composition. They consist primarily of cattle bones, whereby both low-meat as well as meat-rich body parts are identifiable. Many of the cattle bones display traces of chopping and cutting, evidence of professional butchering with butcher's tools such as chopping knives or cleavers. The presence and ultimately feeding by dogs can be attested by numerous traces of bites. The cattle were mostly slaughtered in their adolescence or maturity, whereas in contrast there is hardly any evidence of sucking calves. The bones reveal two morphologically different types: very small cattle, comparable to an Iron Age indigenous cattle type, and very large cattle, which are represented in numerous Roman find-sites in Austria.
The remaining domestic animals are only subordinately represented, whereby a greater proportion of swine than of sheep and goat is noteworthy. Horse and donkey are attested via some remains in the material. Surprisingly, a large number of dog bones are present, yet these do not display traces of having been processed. The use of poultry is proven by the presence of chicken and goose.
Evidence for hunted animals are wild boar, deer and red deer as well as bones that could originate from a bison. In addition to small predators such as fox and perhaps wildcat, there are also bones from a brown bear and the lower arm bone of a very large predator. Although the bone is very fragmentary at both ends, nevertheless its form is consistent with a big cat. Whereas most of the animal remains were probably deposited as common refuse, the bones of the large predators could very well represent the remains from animal chases in the amphitheatre.
Haselbach: Agriculture of a settlement centre of the La Tène period
The French-Austrian joint project »Celtic Settlement Centres in Eastern Austria« »Celtic Settlement Centres in Eastern Austria«under the direction of S. Fichtl and P. Trebsche has set the goal of improving knowledge about the settlement structures of the region during the Latène period and, on the basis of the archaeological processing of the individual findspots, to elucidate them more closely in particular with regard to their economic foundations and their relationships to each other.
Mid-size centres such as Haselbach, as Missing Links between the known large settlements such as Němčice or Roseldorf and small village-like structures, ought to have played a considerable role in this agricultural and economic realm.
The goal of the the archaeobotanical analyses of the charred preserved plant remains, in addition to the investigation of the spectrum of crop plants cultivated, is to ascertain and to characterise the centres of activity within the settlement (for the storage and processing of grain). Of interest here are, for example, the (secondary) infillings of silo pits. Regarding the spectrum of weeds, an ecological characterisation of the fields around the La Tène period settlement should be carried out.
Aegean Region: Bioarchaeology
Aigeira: Animal husbandry and subsistence
Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien, Institut für Topographische Anatomie
Lousoi: The bioarchaeology of two cult sites
Andreas G. Heiss Alfred Galik
OeAW-OeAI FWF (P 31801, PI Christoph Baier)
Between coastal stretches of land and mountainous landscapes, the eastern Mediterranean region offers an enormous variety of diverse habitats. The permit excavations of Aigeira and Lousoi are therefore the object not only of research interests in the area of settlement archaeology, but also of environmental archaeology.
The Peloponnese is home to a variety of very different natural and settlement environments, each with extremely diverse orographic and climatic challenges for human societies. The two Arcadian settlement environments of Aigeira and Lousoi, both investigated by the OeAI for decades, could not for example be more different: Aigeira lies above the Gulf of Corinth in an advantageous location from a military-strategic perspective, and fishing grounds as well as agriculturally usable land are present in this Mediterranean favourable location, yet nevertheless the water supply is difficult. In contrast, the environs of Lousoi, the high plateau of Soudena, is much more difficult to access, is not optimal for the cultivation of typically Mediterranean produce (figs, wine, olives) and during the winter season is regularly flooded. The bioarchaeological research attempts here to better understand the strategies applied in dealing with these preconditions.
Aigeira: Animal husbandry and subsistence in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age
The most recent excavations below the ancient acropolis of Aigeira have revealed comprehensive archaeozoological finds that enable the reconstruction of practices of animal husbandry and economic systems in a broad chronological framework: goats and sheep, followed by cattle were the most important domestic animals. These animals were apparently slaughtered primarily in their middle years. Such a profile of age at slaughter speaks for the usage of secondary products such as milk, hair or wool, but also for the intent for the optimum yield of meat. The cattle must have been small in stature and of delicate frame. Amongst the significantly less common finds of pig bones, which in addition show a lower age at slaughter, were also found decidedly larger bones – all of these must have originated from wild boar. Noteworthy are also horse and donkey remains which could be attested as well as the pelvic bone of a lion. Red deer and hare bones, as well as a few seashells and snails complete the faunal remains.
Lousoi: The bioarchaeology of two cult sites in the centre of the ancient city
In the ancient polis of Lousoi, archaeobotanical and archaeozoological analyses form part of the interdisciplinary investigation of the functional and spatial structure of the public centre public centre of the Hellenistic city.
The systematic study of botanic macro-fossils and mammalian bones from selected contexts in the area of the central urban sanctuary to the east of the Hellenistic agora as well as from another small sacred building in the immediate vicinity sheds light on the great importance that the agricultural economy and animal husbandry had for the inhabitants of the karst plain, located at ca. 1,000 m above sea level. On the other hand, they also provide vital information for the contextual interpretation of the excavation results.
Whereas the evidence in the area of the central sanctuary indicates the conducting of ritual banquets in the heart of the city, the botanic macro-remains from the usage strata at Monument A ought to indicate cultic festivals that had a close connection with the hope for fertility and good harvests, and possibly also to death and burgeoning new life.
Environment and Human Impact in Historical Societies
The research group »Environment and Human Impact in Historical Societies« is concerned with the complex relation of humans to their environment in historical societies, which are characterised by anthropologically altered ecosystems. A central focus is, on the one hand, the issue of how human actions deform the environment and have contributed to lasting transformations; while on the other hand the question is addressed of how human societies have adapted their strategies in managing changing environmental conditions. The themes extend from patterns of land usage and agrarian systems, commerce with foodstuffs and diverse strategies of provisioning, up to the impact analysis of migration, martial devastations, yet also massive human interventions into the natural environment, for example via settlement or monumental building projects.
Team Alfred Galik Thorsten Jakobitsch Magdalena Srienc Silvia Wiesinger
Head Andreas G. Heiss
A multi-proxy-Approach for the Determination of White Marbles in the Roman World
Ephesos | Ancient Grey Marble Quarry
by Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut
In Roman antiquity marble was considered to be a valuable building material and an expression of power. Wealth manifested itself in public building projects as well as in the private sphere through the use of differently colored marbles of various origin. In order to keep up with the enormous demand of the building industry for primarily white marble new quarries had to be opened up in the entire empire. Some of the quarries expanded their export radius while the majority supplied their regional markets.
Sabine Ladstätter Walter Prochaska
Fritz Mitthof (University of Vienna) National Archaeological Institute of Bulgaria Efes Müzesi Selçuk Remzi Yağci (Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi) Landesmuseum für Kärnten City Museum of Villach TU Wien
FWF P 33042
Bibliography Marble of Thrace
However, depending on the quality and technological characteristics, white marble was only used selectively: Thasos and Aphrodisias were popular for sculpture, inscriptions reveal that the origin of sarcophagi was Proconnesos and Dokimeion. Ephesos and Herakleia again had large deposits that were quarried far beyond their own needs.
Very little is known about the trade networks of white marble because the systematic determination of origin of well-dated objects is lacking. This is the starting point for the current project that will focus on sampling and analyzing artifacts from specifically selected sites. For this study material was illustratively selected from areas, such as Cyprus, Cilicia, and Israel because they do not have their own marble production and were dependent on imports as well as the marble-rich regions, such as Thrace, Asia Minor, and the eastern Alps. The study of two trade metropoleis in the east, Ephesos and Corinth, serve in order to establish the existence of marble trade and the transfer of technology and crafts.
In the last several decades a number of methods were developed in order to analyze the origin of white marble. The most important include the analysis of stable isotopes (O and C), EPR, the analyses of trace elements as well as the recently intensified application of the analysis of micro-inclusions in marbles. Taken alone, none of these methods have provided satisfactory results. For the purpose of this project a combination of these methods was selected with an increase of the number of the studied trace elements in order to improve the analytical basis for the determination of origin of the white marbles.
The stated aim is to determine the scope of the production but also the distribution radius of local marble industries and their workshops based on the exact analysis of origin of the marbles. Furthermore, based on these natural scientific investigations and in combination with stylistic characteristics of architecture and sculpture it is possible to examine whether workshops or artists moved in the eastern Mediterranean and whether they worked with the marbles that they were familiar with from home.
The quarries in the vicinity of Ephesos
According to the current results, the white marbles that were quarried in the area around Ephesos can be assigned to the two main groups Ephesos I and Ephesos II both associated with different quarries. Furthermore, there are quarries that cannot be linked to either of these two main groups. This includes a small quarry with light gray, very coarse-grained marble on Abu Hayat, which was specialized in the production of sarcophagi and has been verified in the ancient city of Ephesos.
A special marble with a striking structure (white with black markings) was quarried in a separate quarry about 20 km northeast of Ephesos. This variety of Ephesian marble referred to as »Greco Scritto« was apparently traded in the entire Roman Empire and has been identified in Rome, Sirmium, and Selinunte among other places.
In order to also verify the fingerprints of the Ephesian quarries in Ephesos, intensive sampling of architecture, sculpture, sarcophagi, and smaller objects was conducted in the past years. The results of the analysis are still in progress but it can be expected that they will lead to far-reaching insights on the use of marbles with specific properties, on building programs but also on the importance of the Ephesian quarries for the economic power of the city.
The villa of Armira and the marble quarries of Thrace
The Roman villa of Armira by Ivailovgrad (Bulgaria) impresses with its generous architecture and unique mosaic decor. Built in the late 1st century CE, the complex underwent numerous renovations until it was fully destroyed and abandoned in the late 4th century CE. In the early 2nd century the large peristyle courtyard of the villa was decorated with an exquisite marble furnishing consisting of a columned peristyle with a hermae barrier as well as a wall revetment subdivided by pilasters and panels with incised decoration originally highlighted in color. Soon after the publication, a debate ensued about the artistic classification and origin of the marble furnishings. Details of the craftsmanship led to the assumption that the capitals and sculptures came from Aphrodisias or that at least craftsmen from the Asia Minor stone mason center had worked in Armira. Conversely, it was also suggested, that the marble furnishings were connected with the commercial activities of the house owner which appeared to be supported by the quarries in the immediate vicinity of Armira.
Following the sampling field trip, for the first time evidence was provided that the marbles used in Armira are of local origin. The survey campaign in 2019 is intended to provide more precise identifications with the surrounding quarries.
The marble quarries in the Eastern Alps
High-quality marble quarries are also located in Carinthia, Styria, and Slovenia and were already exploited in antiquity. Two shiploads of marble blocks are of particular interest and were recovered from the bed of the River Drava and sampled in a field season in 2018. In addition to analyzing their origin, the Pörtschach marbles will be precisely investigated in order to study their use in ancient objects. Furthermore, the scientific analysis of ancient sculpture and architecture from the cities and villas of the Roman province Noricum will support further study of the supply with local marbles and the question of imports.
Clay raw materials and evidence of primary production of ceramics in western Asia Minor
Sabine Ladstätter (interimistic)
Laboratoire Archéométrie et Archéologie, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, Lyon Universität für angewandte Kunst Wien, Institut für Kunst und Technologie, Abteilung Archäometrie Fitch Laboratory, British School at Athens ARCHEA Warschau
Archaeometric reference data is the basis for a well-founded scientific determination of origin of archaeological artifacts. In addition to clay raw materials, the analysis in particular of remains of primary pottery productions, such as wasters, unfired vessels, or molds permit the creation of local-regional petrographic and geochemical fingerprints.
While geological maps provide a general overview of the rock deposits in a landscape and therefore can suggest the possible composition of the clay sediments deposited in them, archaeometric reference patterns are an indispensable instrument in order to verify and specify the origin of ancient ceramics, to point out pottery traditions, or to emphasize the diversity of the localregionally available clay pastes.
Petrographic-mineralogical reference patterns
Pioneering work permitting a detailed petrographic and heavy mineralogical definition of the ceramic production of Ephesos and central Asia Minor trace back to R. Sauer (Vienna). The data was generated through a detailed description of architectural ceramics, pottery from kilns within the Ephesian city limits, or vessels associated with certain productions according to archaeological criteria and is the basis for a unique resource for further research at the Department of Archaeometry at the OeAI. Petrographic analyses permit the identification of mineral and rock components of clays and can aid in making the methods of the clay manipulation by the potter better understandable.
Elementary composition of ancient pottery
Geochemical studies such as X-ray fluorescence or neutron activation analysis can narrow down the orign of archaeological pottery and are suitable, in particular, for the clarification of questions dealing with fine wares. To date, research was centered predominantly on Archaic and medieval ceramics production and distribution but now also includes sample series of prehistoric and Roman pottery.
Geological field survey
Geological survey have been conducted since the 1990s, mainly by R. Sauer, and primarily cover the area around the ancient city of Ephesos but also the surrounding landscape. The survey area reaches from Zeytinköy, Kuşadası to Șirince.
Diachronic evaluation of ceramic remains
The increase of archaeometric reference data is essential not only in terms of the determination of origin of archaeological objects but also for the diachronic assessment. Preferences for the use of specific clay raw materials in the pottery production are thus visible and can be ascribed to the availability and knowledge of specific deposits in the various periods but can also suggest a conscious choice of raw materials for the production of specific vessel shapes and their function.
Geochemical Investigations to Identify the Origin of Roman Colour Pigments in Noricum
Alexandra S. Rodler
Landesmuseum Kärnten Römermuseum Teurnia Archäologischer Park Magdalensberg Museum Retznei Celje Regional Museum Museum Lauriacum Salzburg Museum Universität Innsbruck/Aguntum Bundesdenkmalamt Montanuniversität Leoben Universität Wien Universita degli studi di Padova Vrije Universiteit Brussel Université Libre de Bruxelles
Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (Finanzierungsvereinbarung Nr. 845075 — BUNT — H2020-MSCA-IF-201)
By identifying the origin of provincial Roman colour pigments, this project investigates the knowledge transfer, cultural exchange as well as political and economic transformations in Noricum. Archaeometry combined with research on polychromy can indicate how not only goods but also knowledge in early cultures were ›exchanged‹. This is relevant for the study of cultural heritage as well as for the understanding of ancient economic dynamics, technology and arts.
The topic of the project is to investigate whether ancient colour pigments are able to show evidence of different forms of exchange and socio-economic transformation. Can the scientifically analysed, archaeologically and historically contextualised information about origin of raw materials and processes of production of ancient colour pigments provide indications about preferred trade relations, technology and organisation of production as well as knowledge transfer and cultural exchange? To this end, the origin of the raw materials as well as the quality of ancient pigments (here in particular cinnabar-vermilion and Egyptian blue pigments) will be analysed in a multi-disciplinary approach. The trace elements and isotopic composition of the pigments will allow conclusions to be drawn concerning the raw materials employed, and their origin.
Noricum, a region that underwent large-scale transformations after becoming a Roman province, was an area with rich resources of raw materials and, therefore, the possibility to produce pigments locally. The material analysis of the cinnabar and Egyptian blue pigments from the Roman imperial period and Late Antiquity will be considered in this context of cultural, political and economic transformation in Noricum.
Archaeometric Analyses of the pre-Classical Pottery from Lousoi
The Geometric and Archaic vessels from the sanctuary of Artemis Hemera in Lousoi (Peloponnese) are being examined with petrographic and geochemical methods in order to identify the sites of manufacture and the techniques of production, according to which different workshops can be differentiated. By determining the origin of the vessels, the regional and supra-regional attractiveness of the sanctuary can be reconstructed.
Goals and investigative methods
In this project, petrographic and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyses are predominantly employed. Collaborative work and scientific exchange with other archaeometric projects in the northern Peloponnese and on the gulf of Corinth should help in developing a comprehensive petrographic and geochemical comparative databank; with the aid of this databank, it should be possible to reconstruct regional networks of exchange. Representative ceramic samples will be selected with the aid of general, microscopically visible characteristics of the clay matrix and the inclusions, which can be identified with non-destructive investigative methods (pXRF and optical microscope). Geological samples and Hellenistic building materials (e.g. roof tiles) as well as wasters will also be consulted in order to define a local reference group.
In addition to questions of origin, archaeometric investigations can also elucidate technological aspects such as the preparation of the clay body, processes of moulding, treatment of the surface and firing procedures. In addition, the question should also be pursued as to what degree the vessels that only appear in ritual contexts differ technologically from the rest of the ceramic inventory.
Chronological and geographical expansion
The project is being expanded both at the geographical as well as the chronological level. Contemporary assemblages from other find-sites in the northern Peloponnese such as Ano Mazaraki, Nikoleika, Skepasto, Psophis and Soudeneika are also being analysed in order to acquire a more comprehensive reconstruction of the regional and supra-regional networks of the sanctuary. In addition, the materials from the Archaic colony of Metapontum in South Italy are being examined in order to work out their relations to the northern Peloponnese sites, taking into consideration ceramic imports and the transfer of pottery technology. Not least, petrographic and geochemical analyses of the later ceramic evidence from the Hellenistic polis of Lousoi are being carried out in order to record diachronic transformations in the local strategies of supply and ceramic reception, as well as the intra- and inter-regional networks of Lousoi.
Limyra: Pottery Studies
Kathrin Kugler Oliver Hülden (supervision of dissertation)
since September 2016
Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung München (graduation grant until December 2020)
Late Antique pottery
since July 2016
FWF-Projekt P 29027 (until June 2019) FWF (in application)
The study of pottery in Limyra takes place in the framework of a variety of contextual reappraisal projects. The chronological period extends from the Classical up until the early Byzantine period. The goal is to create a typological chronology of pottery from Limyra that is as uninterrupted as possible, and to trace the diachronic development of production, consumption and trade.
Research into Hellenistic ceramics
The Hellenistic pottery from Limyra will be placed into a broader context, in the framework of a dissertation project based at LMU Munich and supervised by O. Hülden (OeAI); its significance throughout the entire area of south-west Asia Minor will be investigated. Currently the evidence from the excavations at the so-called West Gate (2011–2012) is being analysed, and in addition the documentation of the ceramics from the excavations at the Xñtabura sarcophagus is being carried out – in spite of its disturbance, a significant and largely cohesive tomb find. The ceramic evidence from the so-called Slope House excavation constitutes an additional component.
Research on the Late Antique-early Byzantine pottery
The material evidence from the excavations in the area of the Late Antique gates in the west and east of Limyra is being examined in order to acquire a better chronological understanding of the two find-spots and their significance in the urban development of Limyra. In addition, the pottery provides important information about the economic framework within which Limyra was integrated from the 5th to the 7th centuries A.D. The ceramic finds include both regional and supra-regional products. Whereas the regional workshops predominantly produced ceramics for daily use, such as jugs, cooking pots, in part glazed tableware and presumably also clay building materials (roof tiles, spacers), the eastern amphorae and the majority of the tableware were primarily all imported; for these latter products, objects were imported from a variety of sources. The high occurrence of Pontic ›Carrot Amphorae‹ in the region of the Late Antique city gates is remarkable; their presence is an indication of the influence of Pontic agricultural products in the eastern Mediterranean region. This phenomenon will also be pursued in the course of subsequent evaluative work.
Roman Pottery in the Gulf Region (UAE)
Alice Waldner Horacio González Cesteros Laura Rembart
Andreas Liebmann-Holzmann (Österreichische Botschaft Abu Dhabi) Sabah Abooud Jasim – Eisa Yousif (Archaeology Authority Sharjah)
OeAW-OeAI Archaeology Authority Sharjah (SAA)
Based on the initiative of the Austrian Ambassador in Abu Dhabi and at the invitation of the Sharjah Archaeology Authority (SAA), a project is dedicated to the identification of Mediterranean pottery imports into the Gulf region.
The pottery from the find-sites of Mleiha and Dibba al-Hisn at the Gulf of Oman has been processed at the Sharjah Archaeology Museum and in the excavation depots at Mleiha and Dibba al-Hisn, with a focus on the identification of Mediterranean fine ceramic wares and imports of amphorae in the evidence from Dibba al-Hisn. The inspection yielded fine ceramic imports of Italian Sigillata (ITS) and of Eastern Sigillata A (ESA). In addition, however, Aegean, Campanian and sporadic finds of Tripolitanian amphorae could also be identified.
In general it can be recorded that Mediterranean ceramic imports appear in very small quantities, while imports from Mesopotamia, Saudi Arabia and presumably also India played a larger role. Nevertheless, the vessels traded over a long distance at least provide evidence of exchange. Whether these indicate direct long-distance trade with Rome/the Mediterranean region, or whether networks of exchange within Arabia were responsible with only indirect contacts with the regions of origin of the imports, cannot be answered at this time. Subsequent ceramic studies are planned on site.
Byzantine Amphorae from Ephesos and a Ship’s Cargo in Palamós
Horacio González Cesteros
Lise-Meitner-Programm M 2035 OeAW-OeAI
Centre d’Arqueologia Subaquàtica de Catalunya (CASC) Museu d’Arqueologia de Catalunya
Amphorae are important sources for the reconstruction of trade relationships, agricultural production and habits of consumption. They were containers for a variety of goods, in particular wine, oil, fish products and fruits, including dates and olives. Traded over long distances, they enable the reconstruction of economic networks, yet also provide decisive information about regional crop production and, to a lesser degree, also about livestock farming, in particular fish breeding. Finally, they are also indicators of the prosperity and cultural identity of consumers.
Byzantine amphorae from Ephesos
During the Byzantine era Ephesos remained integrated within a Mediterranean trade network, which allowed it to transport into the city agricultural goods over long distances in containers produced for that purpose, mostly amphorae, and also to distribute products from its own region.
The goal of the investigation is an evaluation of the amphora finds of the Byzantine period in Ephesos, taking into consideration questions of consumer behaviour of differing social classes, as well as the trade network of the city against the background of large-scale social transformations over the course of the Byzantine era. Amphorae have been selected from find-sites of various functions, and on this basis, whether a specific consumer behaviour can be deduced will be examined.
Particular attention is paid to the destructions of the 7th century. New research results attest for Ephesos, in spite of the significant decrease in population, a settlement continuum as well as a continually functioning system of harbour, city and hinterland. Agricultural production in the surroundings of Ephesos also appears to have continued unbroken and the provision of the city guaranteed. Nevertheless, wine was no longer traded in the traditional Late Roman Amphora 3, but rather in the course of the 7th century new standardised vessel forms were adopted in Ephesos, and these will be analysed as part of the project.
Shipwreck »Illes Formigues 2« (Palamós, Spanien)
The coastal region of north-east Spain and southern France is one of the most important regions for underwater archaeology in the Mediterranean. In the context of a cooperation with the Centre d’Arqueologia Subaquàtica de Catalunya (CASC), since 2018 the amphorae from a shipwreck have been evaluated. They originated without exception from the region of Cádiz in southern Spain and served for the transportation of products from fish-processing enterprises.
A first assessment of the finds has revealed that the ship including its cargo probably foundered between 20 and 10 B.C. The preliminary appraisal of the ship’s construction suggests that it was built in Italy. The combined evaluation of construction type and ship’s cargo will provide a contribution, taking into consideration the find-location, to the reconstruction of trade relations and trading routes in the early Roman imperial period. Thus, the port of departure of this midsize ancient cargo ship was probably Gades-Cádiz, whereas the destination port is assumed to be in what is today southern France. From there, the transport amphorae would have been traded by ship over one of the known river routes further to Aquitaine or to the north-west of the Imperium Romanum. The ceramic find-spectrum of early Augustan military camps suggest that the cargo from the shipwreck »Illes Formigues 2« was intended to supply provisions for the Roman troops stationed along the Rhine.
The material culture of Ephesos in the 7th century CE
The 7th century CE is a period of upheaval that in Ephesos can be studied as a result of a considerable number of find assemblages. In particularly the late antique-medieval city quarter south of the Church of Mary permits insights into the material culture of the 7th century because it was abruptly abandoned following its destruction by fire.
Topography and find assemblages
The 7th century has been documented through numerous find contexts in Ephesos. With the exception of the so-called Tomb of St. Luke with its special status as a pilgrimage site, the urban area beyond the Upper Agora was largely abandoned during the period in question. The Curetes Street and the Terrace House 2 were part of a suburban workshop district in the 7th century; the city center was located in the northwest of the Roman city. Find assemblages of the 7th century are located in the theater, the Vedius Gymnasium, the so-called Byzantine Palace, and the Church of Mary. A particularly important late antique-medieval city quarter is located to the south of the Church of Mary that was destroyed by fire in the second half of the century and was abandon in haste. Furniture, everyday objects, and sumptuous furnishings were left behind and provide unique insights into the material culture of the 7th century CE.
The material culture
The contextual analysis of all find groups makes it possible to create a comprehensive and possibly for all of Ephesos model reconstruction of daily life of the elite in the 7th century. The assemblage of fine ware and glass vessels but also the amphorae, cooking wares, and coarse wares used in the late antique-medieval city quarter are evidence of eating and drinking habits, cooking habits but also trade activities and consumption practices of a possibly aristocratic Ephesian family. Furthermore, certain find assemblages deserve particular attention because they permit conclusions about the function of the individual rooms. To date around 5,000 coins have been recovered but other finds also include magnificent furnishings such as a sword originally mounted on the wall, jewelry, accessories of garments, and Christian pilgrimage souvenirs, such as a so-called pilgrim flask and a token from the Promised Land.
Outlook and objectives
The scientific analysis of the material culture of the 7th century of Ephesos is taking place as a team (pottery: A. Waldner, L. Rembart, amphoras: H. González Cesteros, glass: L. Schintlmeister, costume and jewelry: A. M. Pülz, coins: N. Schindel). The aim of the project is to refine the chronology of the urban history and the cause for the destruction horizons in the 7th century and to reconstruct daily life in Ephesos at the time. At the same time the contextual analysis of the find assemblages provides an opportunity to determine room function but also to narrow down the duration of individual genres and forms.
Ephesos: Pottery Studies
Johanna Struber-İlhan Sabine Ladstätter (supervision of dissertation)
Pompeian red wares and derivatives
Gerwulf Schneider Małgorzata Daszkiewicz (ARCHEA Warshaw)
since January 2016
Institut za arheologiju, Zagreb/ Institut für Archäologie, Zagreb Harvard Sardis Project
since October 2017
OeAW-OeAI Stipendienstiftung der Republik Österreich (until September 2018)
Bettina Schwarz Sabine Ladstätter (supervision master thesis)
Bibliography Pottery Ephesos
The excavations at Ephesos, with their great quantity of stratified ceramic finds and the exceptional level of research and publication, offer the ideal basis for diachronic studies on typology and chronology, as well as for a functional analysis of a variety of types of pottery.
›Fine ware‹ (thin-walled ceramic)
The subject of a dissertation is a type-specific investigation of the thin-walled pottery with a focus on the late Hellenistic-Augustan period until the end of the 1st century A.D. During this period, Roman influence in the Greek east strengthened, as is manifested as well in the increased appearance of this pottery in the find-spectrum of Ephesos, with a diverse repertoire of forms.
Characteristic for the type is a wall thickness of less than 1 mm up to a maximum of 6 mm; the vessels are turned as discs or in mould, and could be fired both under oxidising or reducing firing conditions in the kiln. In the repertoire of forms, beakers of various designs dominate, in addition to bowls, and more rarely, jugs, little pots and bottles. They attest to the use of the pottery as tableware, above all as drinking utensils at table.
›Ephesos lamps‹ are the most commonly disseminated product of Ephesian pottery manufacture in the Hellenistic period. Integrated into the socio-political and cultural context, their study will illuminate aspects of Ephesian handicraft production from the 2nd century B.C. until the Augustan period. In investigating the patterns of dissemination of ›Ephesos lamps‹, information about cultural interconnections in the ancient Mediterranean region and beyond is to be expected.
Pompeian red wares and derivatives
Combined archaeological and archaeometric analyses of the so-called Pompeian red wares not only attest to the import of prototypes of this pottery from Campania in the 1st century B.C. and 1st century A.D., but also allow the identification of imitations and derivatives of western Asia Minor manufacture. Due to the divergent clay composition and surfaces of the cooking platters, varying physical properties can be reconstructed for the Campanian and western Asia Minor ceramics. These had a direct influence on the cooking activities and practices carried out with them.
A white ground, and a red coat applied over this, are characteristic for the so-called Red-on-White (ROW) lamps, lending the lamps a radiant orange- to reddish-brown appearance. The ROW lamps became the most common means of lighting after the Tiberian period and more or less abruptly replaced the previously prevalent, locally produced, mould-formed ›Ephesos lamps‹. The goals of the study are the definition and characterisation of the ROW lamps, which were widespread up until the 3rd century, by means of technological features and the creation of a chronology and typology, taking into account motifs and stamps.
Scientific analyses of the glass finds from the late antique-medieval city quarter to the south of the Church of Mary in Ephesos
Luise Schintlmeister Sabine Ladstätter (dissertation adviser) Timothy Taylor (dissertation adviser)
Julian Henderson (University of Nottingham)
As part of the dissertation project »Glass from a Late Antique and Medieval City Quarter in Ephesos« analyses of the chemical composition of glass is being conducted in collaboration with J. Henderson (University of Nottingham). The results are expected to provide information on the production technology as well as on the origin and the commercial value of the objects.
Chemical analyses of historical glass provide information about their regional attribution, dating, and production technology and also contribute to the assessment of their durability. Different chemical groups of glass can be identified through the impurities of the added sand. Despite the geographical proximity to primary glass production centers and the commercial and political importance, very little is known about the chemical composition of glass from sites in Asia Minor.
Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA): Composition and concentration of main and secondary group elements Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): Analysis of trace elements Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS): Identification of radiogenic isotopes (Nd and Sr)
Can a local glass production be verified in Ephesos and/or are the glass finds from the city quarter imported goods? Which differences can be discovered in the chemical composition of the material (window panes, vessel glass)? Is there a link between the chemical composition, the vessel shape, and the economic value (high vs. low quality) of vessels
The Colours of Ephesos: Origin, Trade and Cultural Exchange
One of the most precious colour pigments used in antiquity was red cinnabar – the colour pigment vermilion. A powder made from the red mercury sulphide (α-HgS) yields this bright red colour pigment. This raw material was expensive and was presumably imported into the Roman empire. The largest known deposits of cinnabar in the Mediterranean region are found near Almadén (Spain), Idria (Slovenia) and Monte Amiata (Italy), with smaller deposits in Turkey, Tunisia, France and Germany.
Extraction of cinnabar near Almadén goes back to the 6th millennium B.C. Although the smaller deposits near Idria and Monte Amiata were equally exploited by the Romans, written sources report that Almadén provided the greatest quantity of cinnabar imports into the Roman empire. Until now, the extraction of cinnabar in the Mediterranean region has not been fundamentally studied, and above all the contribution of smaller ore deposits has not been sufficiently examined. In recent decades, analyses of the origin of archaeological materials by means of mineralogical and petrographic investigations as well as analyses of elements and isotopes have been undertaken in order to enable the reconstruction of trade connections. While this type of investigation was focused for a long time on metal objects, recent years have seen an increase in the analysis of origin of archaeological glassware and pigments.
Particularly interesting in this context is the origin of cinnabar pigments from Ephesos, especially since small yet easily accessible cinnabar deposits are found in the vicinity of Ephesos (e.g., Çeşme peninsula). This leads to the question of whether these local resources were used in Ephesos or whether ores from far afield (e.g. from Almadén) were preferred for vermilion pigment.
The ore deposits that were mined in antiquity reveal marked differences in their lead isotope composition due to their differing geological ages and formation processes. The possibility therefore exists to differentiate between different sources of cinnabar raw material accessed during antiquity. For the vermilion pigments from Ephesos and the question regarding near and distant sources of raw material, the discussion in addition is opened up about the quality of the raw material as a motivation for trade, as well as about the specialisation of the workers and the ›outsourcing‹ of the health risks, which at that time were already known. The identification of non-local raw materials and the long-distance trade in cinnabar can therefore enrich our understanding of economic and political interactions in the Roman empire.
Element analysis with XRF on site Trace element analysis with ICP-MS Mineralogical composition with SEM-EDS Lead isotope analysis with MC-ICP-MS
Alexandra S. Rodler Pamela Fragnoli Sabine Ladstätter
Lasse Sørensen (Nationalmuseum Kopenhagen, Dänemark) Gilberto Artioli (Universität Padova, Italien) Georg Plattner (Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien) Johannes Weber (Universität für angewante Kunst Wien) AMGC, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgien
Non-Ferrous Metallurgy in Byzantine Ephesos
Dávid Zs. Schwarcz Falko Daim (dissertation adviser)
RGZM Leibniz Research Institute of Archaeology VIAS
since January 2014
Doctoral Scholarship of the RGZM OeAW-OeAI (thin section analysis)
As part of the project, metal working production sites in the Byzantine city of Ephesos are being studied both archaeologically as well as with the natural sciences. The study of the material remains of metal workers and their workshops provide information regarding the commercial and social life of the city. Several written sources report about the presence and work of metal craftsmen such as copper and silver smiths in the ancient city of Ephesos; a noteworthy example is the famous uprising of the silver smiths against Paul (Acts 19, 23).
The research project is focused on the topic of urban non-ferrous metal processing; the finds that can be connected with such activities largely come from find sites within the city. These will be evaluated in cultural and historical as well as natural scientific and fine forging regard. The chronological time frame encompasses the 4th through 10th century CE due to the dating of the finds and their find circumstances. The research is primarily concentrated on the metal working production centers of the early Byzantine period in the Terrace House 2 although other sites that are mainly located in the upper city also receive considerable attention. The aim is to characterize the properties of these production sites and to define their role in the urban living environment.
The finds (a total of more than 800 objects) include various fragmentary or even fully preserved crucibles, molds, semi-finished products, the metal slag of workshops, and various iron fragments that can be interpreted as the tools of the metal workers. These will be classified and evaluated according to the traditional antiquarian method, however, the the production and technological aspects will be the focus. The molds that have preserved the negative impression of the originally produced goods will be emphasized because this permits the identification of the production range. Moreover, the research is focused on scientific analyses of crucibles that even exhibit fused metal residue.
Petrographic analysis of Byzantine crucibles from Ephesos
Petrographic studies of the early Byzantine crucibles permit a technological assessment of these melting containers regarding their heat resistance and thermodynamic properties. A comparison of the composition of locally produced ceramic coarse wares and crucibles illustrates a possible interaction between clay and metal working craft sectors.
The specific requirements for crucibles that permit the controlled melting of metals raise the question whether the clay had a specially tailored compositions for their production. Comprehensive petrographic comparative data on Ephesian ceramic coarse and table wares but also geological reference groups are excellently suited in order to clarify this.
Shape, technology, and function
The detailed characterization of the clay used for the production of crucibles will further also demonstrate whether correlations exist between the clay composition and the metals processed in the crucibles. In this regard the preserved metal residue was studied through the scanning electron microscope in the VIAS-laboratory.
The coating of some crucibles with n additional outer layer of clay that was likely applied by hand is remarkable. One of the important functions of this layer was likely to retain the fluid state of the metal for a longer period of time. The expected results of the archaeometric analyses could aid in better understanding the production processes of the crucibles but could also establish possible interactions between two different crafts sectors.
Similarities and Differences in Metal Jewellery of the Early and Middle Byzantine Periods
Andrea M. Pülz
Georg Plattner (Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Antikensammlung)
The goal of the planned study is to work out similarities and differences between significant object types in connection with their usage of different metals (precious metals and copper alloys) during the 6th– 12th centuries. To this end, an interdisciplinary approach will be followed, with the application of typo-chronology, analysis of decoration, manufacturing technique and material analysis.
The proposed study is concerned with specific types of earrings, buckles and belt decorations in the Early and Middle Byzantine period (6th – 12th centuries), including the transitional period, the so-called dark centuries between the 7th and the 9th centuries. The geographical framework is limited to the Byzantine realm and concentrates primarily on well-documented find spots with a broad spectrum of comparable material.
The project's goal is to work out similarities and differences between significant object types, in connection with their usage of different metals (precious metals and copper alloys) during this time frame. In the course of the project, so-called interregional characteristics of a central Byzantine style should also be investigated for the individual types, and should be confronted with a probable regional concept, since the question arises whether regional influences − not only in the border regions, but also in the core regions of the Byzantine Empire − did not play a far greater role than has been assumed in the scholarship so far. The division of the artefact groups and types should shed light on the relationship between the finds and should aid in determining regional characteristics within the Byzantine Empire. In this regard the diachronic components in particular play a significant role.
The goal of the study should be attained by means of the following research areas:
Comparative analyses of Byzantine precious metal and copper alloy jewellery Regionality versus interregionality Techniques of manufacture Scientific material analysis with regard to the usage of different metals Cultural-historical interpretation.
The approaches are articulated in the data collection, data evaluation and cultural-historical analysis.
For this type of investigation, an interdisciplinary approach is followed that combines traditional archaeological methods (A. M. Pülz) with fine forging technology (B. Bühler, D. Schwarcz) and chemical analysis (D. Oberndorfer, D. Schwarcz) and adopts the following focal points: typo-chronology, analysis of decoration, technology of production, and material analysis.
The results could be of decisive significance for the social, economic and technological history of Byzantine society in the Early and Middle Byzantine periods. The study of changes in, and reception of the material, as well as of forms and motifs, is not only relevant for chronological classifications, but also touches on questions of distribution, contacts and trade. At the same time, it enables an overview of the metals employed and of techniques of production and decoration of the relevant types of jewellery within the Byzantine Empire and during the specified chronological framework.
The analyses combined in this manner of the metals employed, with the diverse techniques of production and decoration of the various types of jewellery, and their comparison in a diachronic context, can be seen as an innovative research approach. Furthermore, a concept that diverges considerably from the established model of the interregionality of Byzantine handicrafts will be proposed, that emphasises regionality with regard to material, style and technology.
A diachronic approach for the characterization of the production organization
Marcella Frangipane (Università di Roma La Sapienza) Mehmet Özdoğan (İstanbul Üniversitesi) Augusta McMahon (Cambridge University) Harald Hauptmann (University of Heidelberg) Friederike Bachmann (Berlin State Museums) Reinhard Bernbeck (Free University Berlin) Gerwulf Schneider (Free University Berlin)
since March 2015
Dahlem Research School Free University Berlin
The archaeometric analyses of ceramics from Arslantepe (Province Malatya) and other northern Mesopotamian settlements with time sequences spanning several millennia will contribute to studying the degree and form of craft specialization and standardization in relation with the advent of social complexity that led to the formation of the first states.
Characterization of the settlement of Arslantepe
The tell of Arslantepe-Malatya is located in eastern Anatolia in the region of the upper Euphrates and has been explored by the La Sapienza University (Rome) since 1961. The research has revealed a stratigraphic sequence covering several millennia and spanning from the late Chalcolithic to the Byzantine period. Arslantepe appears to have been a political and economic center dominating the region along the upper Euphrates for a long period of time and through interaction with Anatolian, Transcaucasian, and southern Mesopotamia populations it was a hub of different cultural influences.
Methods and materials
The organization of ceramic production must be studied from a chaîne opératoire-perspective, i. e. from a sequence of decisions that led from the extraction of the raw materials and transformative processes to a finished vessel. Of the various analytical methods, non-destructive observations with the naked eye, hand lenses, optical microscopes, as well as petrographic and geochemical analyses play an important role because they provide information about the entire production process. Additional methods (RFA-WDS, XRD, REM-EDS, MGR, xeroradiography) are applied to select samples in order to better define certain steps in the production sequence.
Most samples – those already studied and those awaiting study – come from different contexts of Arslantepe and date to the late Chalcolithic to Iron Age (4250–712 BCE). Over the course of the long settlement history that culminated in the emergence of a neo-Hittite capital far-reaching economic, cultural, and political changes took place that are reflected in the ceramic production organization. Furthermore, the ceramic production from the northern Mesopotamian settlements will be studied: from Norşuntepe in eastern Anatolia and Tepecik in the Elazığ region; from northern Syria Tell Sheikh Hassan along the shore of the central Euphrates and Tell Brak along the upper Chabur/Jazira.
Significance of the current results
The current results illustrate the considerable significance of archaeometric analyses for the detailed investigation of standardization processes, specialization, technological innovations, and persistent traditions of ceramics production over long periods of time and wide geographic areas with significant social change.
Technology of Pottery Production and Networks of Exchange of a Bronze Age Desert Oasis
Pamela Fragnoli Marta Luciani
William Gilstrap Joseph A. Greene
since September 2020
Holzhausen-Legat of the OeAW
With the aid of technological and archaeometric investigations, the late Bronze Age painted pottery from Qurayyah in north-west Arabia is being studied. The goal is to determine the level of technological specialisation and standardisation, and to obtain a better understanding of the productive and economic organisation of a desert oasis during the Bronze Age.
The Oasis of Qurayyah
The settlement of Qurayyah is one of the principal oases in the Arabian peninsula. It has been under investigation since 2015 in excavations directed by Marta Luciani (Institute for Prehistory and Historical Archaeology, University of Vienna). The Bronze Age settlement extended over 350 ha within stone city walls and comprised a residential area, tomb buildings and graves, and contains evidence of copper production in the 3rd millennium B.C. The most impressive discovery, however, is a completely preserved pottery workshop with kilns, spaces and structures for the processing of raw materials, with wasters, raw materials, finished and half-finished vessels. One of the oldest painted pottery wares from north-west Arabia was produced in this workshop, namely, the ›Qurayyah Painted Ware‹, known earlier as ›Midianite Pottery‹, and dating back to the 2nd millennium B.C. ›Qurayyah Painted Ware‹ is decorated with painted bichrome motifs, both geometric and figural. This pottery is found in a broad geographical area, extending from north-west Arabia to Jordan and the southern Levant.
The origin of the ›Qurayyah Painted Ware‹
Although the origin of the ›Qurayyah Painted Ware‹ is one of the most intensively discussed questions in the field of Levantine archaeology, until today relatively few archaeometric investigations have taken place. This project proposes the first comprehensive archaeometric and technological study of the painted ware from Qurayyah, thereby taking advantage of the exceptional context of the pottery workshop that enables an insight into the entire production process. The main goals of the project are:
To determine the petrographic, mineralogical and chemical fingerprint of the vessels produced in Qurayyah. This basic data will allow the identification of which vessels within the Levantine assemblages were produced in Qurayyah and were exported into such distant regions as Amman in Jordan to the north, or Al-'Ula in Saudi Arabia to the south. The determination will help in deciding if the local production was organised by families and tribes at the household level, or at the level of individual workshop industry and beyond. To evaluate the level of the technological specialisation and standardisation along the entire chaîne opératoire and therefore to obtain a better understanding of the productive and economic organisation of a desert oasis in the Bronze Age.
The research methods that are applied integrate investigations at the macro-, meso- and microscopic levels: (1) non-destructive, macroscopic technological investigation on site; (2) thin section petrographic analysis with a polarising microscope to reconstruct the provision and preparation of raw materials; and (3) neutron activation analysis (NAA) to characterise the chemical composition with regard to trace elements and rare elements, which are very expressive indicators for provenience.
Pottery Evidence from the Adriatic Region: Finds from Croatia and Montenegro
Alice Waldner Marina Ugarković Laura Rembart
Museum Trogir Hvar Heritage Museum, Hvar JU Muzeji i galerije Budve Institut za Arheologiju/Institut für Archäologie Zagreb
The east coast of the Adriatic region was always of great strategic interest, both during the Greek as well as the Roman period. The region was an important economic zone and trading hub, as well as a melting pot of diverse cultures – a fact that is reflected in the spectrum of ceramics.
Within the framework of a number of research trips between 2018 and 2019, the ceramic evidence from a variety of find-sites in Croatia and Montenegro could be examined. A large proportion of imported pottery is apparent in this region.
The majority of the pottery that has been examined originates from the necropoleis of Budva. For the Hellenistic period, in addition to imports from southern Italy (Gnathian ware), relief beakers and white-ground ceramics from Asia Minor are noteworthy. In the imperial period as well, scattered imports from the eastern Mediterranean (Eastern Sigillata B, cooking wares) can be observed. Their appearance should be addressed in future projects under the general aspect of eastern Mediterranean imports.
A second focal point of the investigation are finds from central Dalmatia/Croatia: since 2018 the project Trogir Through Time is dedicated to the diachronic and interdisciplinary study of ancient Tragurion/Tragurium and its hinterland. The analysis of the ceramic materials from the excavations reveals that in the Roman and Late Antique periods, imports primarily from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean dominated. In addition to the high proportion of African Red Slip Ware (ARS) and Eastern Sigillata B (ESB), the frequent appearance of Pontic Sigillata must be emphasized, providing evidence that Trogir also enjoyed (trading) contacts with the Black Sea region.
In 2019 the ceramic picture of finds from the island of Hvar could be expanded. The material investigated from the depot of the Hvar Heritage Museum and the excavation company Kantharos d.o.o. concerns finds from excavations at Soline and Hvar as well as from a shipwreck that was salvaged in 1980 in the vicinity of Hvar (Izmetište). Here, too, the dominance of imports from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean is apparent, both in fine wares as well as in the spectrum of amphorae.
Of particular interest was the identification of selected vessels from the ship’s cargo. Here the large proportion of plates and bowls of the latest ESB production stands out in particular. In spite of their poorer quality in comparison to earlier ESB products, these vessels apparently still found broad distribution and demonstrate the popularity of the later production series of this tableware, also beyond the regional market. Furthermore, the considerable amount of so-called Aegean cooking wares from the area of Phokaia is also noteworthy. These ceramic finds should be addressed in type-specific studies.
The Research Group »Object Itineraries« is concerned with the relationship between human and object in antiquity. Characteristics of spatial mobility and chronological transformations of objects will be studied, and complex pathways through time and space will be traced. Focus will also be aimed at the organisation and processes of acquisition of raw materials, production and craftsmanship, technology transfer and the functionality of artefacts. Questions concerning consumption and trade, tradition and innovation in the manufacture, usage and significance of objects, up to their alteration/deterioration and ultimate disposal and re-use will also be addressed. Emphasis will be placed on diachronic and comparative studies relating to handiwork in connection with comprehensive social, economic and political transformations.
David Schwarcz Bettina Schwarz Barbara Umfahrer
Walter Prochaska Andrea Pülz Laura Rembart Alexandra Rodler
Team Petya Andreeva Vasiliki Anevlavi Benjamin Frerix Horacio González Cesteros
Head Archaeology: Alice Waldner Archaeometry: Pamela Fragnoli
The Former Naval Base of Cattaro: Monarchical Fortifications in Montenegro
Center for Conservation and Archeology in Cetinje Ministry of Culture, Montenegro Austrian Embassy of Montenegro Heiko Brendel (University of Passau, Chair for Digital Humanities) Volker Pachauer (Austrian Society for Fortification Research) Walter Prochaska (Montanuniversität Leoben) Johannes Weber (University of Applied Arts Vienna) Susanne Leiner, Andrea Hackel Hungarian Military History Museum, Budapest Ilja Lalosevic (Universität Montenegro, Architekturfakultät)
BMBWF WTZ Förderprogramm (Projekt No: ME 01/2020)
The project relating to the monarchical fortification buildings in Montenegro is based on an initiative of the Ministry of Culture of Montenegro, that inspired a scientific engagement with these objects around the former Austrian naval base of Cattaro. The starting point for the first field campaign in autumn 2018 was a detailed examination of the fortifications of Goražda and Kosmač. These are characterised by their immediate vicinity to the heavily touristed destinations of Kotor and Budva, which is why these forts possess great potential to make history come alive at authentic architectural pieces of evidence and to convey this to a broad public.
The fortification of Kosmač lies in a prominent position 800 m above the coastal town of Budva. This fortification, of great historical importance as the southernmost preserved fort of Austria-Hungary, was erected in 1858 and is 26 years older than the fortification of Goražda. After the recognition of the independence of Montenegro in 1841, the securing of the borders was initiated, which is also manifested by the construction of the fort of Kosmač. At the outbreak of the First World War, the Austrian troops withdrew from the area around the bay of Kotor and, following orders, detonated the fortification.
The state of preservation of the fortification site must be rated as precarious. The exceptionally high degree of damage to the building substance can be ascribed to a great extent to the already mentioned controlled detonation, which severely compromised the statics of the building, whereby the fortification of Kosmač is in acute danger of collapsing.
In the publicly accessible building structure, individual blocks, yet also entire sections of wall or vaulting could come loose and collapse. This situation makes a temporary suspension of access to the building imperative for the security of the public. Here, a survey of the statics of the building is planned in the near future; the weakened building structure should be investigated and a variety of scenarios for a static improvement of the entire fortification or of individual building elements should be evaluated.
In the fortification of Goražda, as at Kosmač, natural stone is the dominant construction material, and the structure takes the form of a number of courses of layered stone. In contrast to Kosmač, at Goražda in addition to the natural stone vaults there are also areas which are spanned and strengthened by steel girders, and ceilings and floors of tamped concrete. A crucial difference exists also in the fact that the fortification of Goražda was in use not only until the fall of the monarchy in 1918, but was also used for military purposes during the Second World War as well as in the post-war period until the 1980s; this usage can be attested by means of a variety of repair works as well as by conversions and additions to the structure.
In Goražda the architectural studies and documentation with regard to restoration measures, which have already begun, should be continued and supplemented by means of an extensive room book, which records the inventory and the necessary measures room by room. The laser scan documentation of the site must be supplemented in the outer areas, after the cleaning of the surrounding moat.
In addition, the conservation measures include the bringing to light and the documentation of a number of representative graffiti by soldiers from the First and Second World Wars. These graffiti constitute an intrinsic element of the defensive installations and their history and for this reason they are absolutely worthy of preservation. Furthermore, the sampling of mortar and stone probes is planned, and their analysis will enable important statements regarding the construction process and the acquisition of materials (quarries, binding agents, etc.).
Finally, it should be noted that the good structural state of preservation of the fortification of Goražda, as well as its location only 3 km away from the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage city of Kotor with its great number of visitors, offers an exceptional opportunity to develop a sustainable concept for the usage of this unique building, going beyond a simple memorial site. For example, a scientific study centre with specific rooms for archives, research and conferences in combination with a museum for the general theme of fortification buildings of the monarchy in Montenegro, and also focusing specifically on the fort of Goražda in the First and Second World Wars and in the post-war period, could be developed.
The long-term goal of the OeAI is the development of a scientific project in cooperation and in coordination with the official authorities and local institutions in Montenegro. The project should incorporate the following aspects: military-science issues; primarily the documentation and implementation of the construction process of the fortification buildings, as well as their maintenance; communication with the broader public; and the issue of how the forts were routinely supplied in times of peace and war. Furthermore, information should be collected regarding the rotating manning of the forts from the crown lands at that time, as well as the interaction of the troops with the civil population in the directly surrounding areas.
Themes that are relevant for architectural history and conservation sciences, such as investigations of material sciences, will be targeted for all of the fortifications. Additional fortification sites should equally be included in the evaluation of samples. The formation of the forts as military functional buildings under Austrian rule allows the supposition that good documentation exists for the construction process and the materials employed. The construction of the sites occurred in an architecturally highly interesting transitional period from more or less simple lime mortar to early industrially produced hydraulic binding materials. It can therefore be assumed that a great correlation exists with functional buildings of the same construction period in Austria.
Finally, attention should be paid to the withdrawal of the troops after the collapse of the monarchy, as well as to the subsequent phases of usage. The results of this planned project should flow directly into the development of an extensive concept for the monument preservation of the entire historical ensemble of fortifications around the bay of Kotor.
The early Medieval border between Egypt and Nubia
M. Döring-Williams (Technical University of Vienna)
OeAW-OeAI FWF (Project No. P31169)
The project deals with the activities on the border of Egypt and Nubia during the early Middle Ages and is focused on the find site of Hisn el-Bab and the fortress, which was used over several periods, located in this border area. The aim is to characterize the inhabitants across time on the basis of excavations and an in-depth analysis of the architectural inventory.
This project is the continuation of a previous project funded by the FWF (P24589-G21) which was focused on the relationship along the border during late antiquity.
Excavations will be carried out in the area of Hisn el-Bab which were connected with the early Middle Ages during previous analyses as well as on areas which are likely of specific interest for the construction history of the buildings. This mainly includes entryways through the fortress walls as well as access and connection paths between them.
Study of the material culture
As a result of the role of Hisn el-Bab as a border fortification it may be assumed that based on the excavations and the study of the material culture typical there it might be possible to shed light on the nature of the inhabitants and their way of life, in particular in comparison on similarly dated archaeological contexts in other places of Egypt and Nubia. The scientific examination of the pottery of the site is particularly important because it provides information on the origin of the vessels and the composition of the inhabitants of the fortress and also the trade and exchange of goods in the border region. Furthermore, the study of the diet of the inhabitants based on plant remains and animal bones as well as the consideration of other find groups, such as weapons, textiles and other organic materials, complete the spectrum of analyses.
Analysis of the architecture
The analysis of the preserved architecture, the chronology of individual building phases as well as the building technique are important aspects of the project. The comparison of the fortress with other similarly dated find sites is intended to illustrate possible connections with buildings at other sites in Egypt and/or Nubia. Similar buildings of the early Middle Ages in Lower Nubia – no longer visible today through the construction of Lake Nasser – are particularly significant.
The results of the fieldwork will be summarized and analyzed taking into account the existing information of Egyptian-Nubian relations during the early Middle Ages. Medieval Arab historians report that a site called el-Qasr, which very likely refers to Hisn el-Bab, is of great importance for the political relations and interactions between Egypt and Nubia. The project should also be a way of characterizing the settlement of Hisn el-Bab as well as the relations between Egypt and Nubia.
The development of reconstruction and restoration in Ephesos
Barbara Rankl Gabriela Krist (dissertation adviser) Sabine Ladstätter (dissertation adviser)
Cooperation Die Angewandte
June 2018 – May 2021
Funding DOC-team Fellowship
In this project the importance of monument preservation will be studied within the context of the transformation of Ephesos from a natural landscape of ruins to an archaeological park utilized by mass tourism. The research questions will be answered with the aid of object-based research, such as conservational inventory and condition reports and material scientific studies.
The ruins of Ephesos offer an exceptional teaching piece for the development of conservation and restoration and the reconstruction of ancient monuments. In the 1950s, in addition to the archaeological research the presentation of the ruins began to gain in importance so that many monuments were reconstructed. Evidence of this construction heavy period is particularly visible along the Curetes Street but also outside of the archaeological park. Conservational elements are just as prevalent as anastyloses and architectural collages, however, the partially monumental constructions differ greatly in the applied methods and materials.
In dealing with the research history of Ephesos the focus has been on the extensive excavations. The discipline of conservation and restoration has received less attention so that a systematic and methodical examination of the development of monument preservation in Ephesos is lacking.
The most important methods
The object is always at the heart of research in the conservation sciences. In order to conduct a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the monument inventory it is necessary to carry out a conservational inventory and condition reports of all relevant objects in Ephesos and its surroundings. The materials used for the old restorations and reconstructions will be characterized more precisely with the help of material scientific analyses of samples.
Furthermore, interviews are also planned within the context of the current work. In the course of the research project, individuals formerly or currently employed in conservation in Ephesos will be questioned. Also the influence of international policies, trends, and individuals will be a central element of study.
How have conservation and restoration developed at the site of Ephesos to the present day? Which developments in monument preservation have been decisive for the present appearance of the archaeological park? What causes of damage and risks can be determined at Ephesos? Which conservation strategies might be helpful for the site management in the archaeological park?
The research project is organized as a dissertation and will fill a gap in the study of the restoration and reconstruction activities in Ephesus in Ephesos. The scientific study of the monument inventory in the archaeological park and its surroundings has a directly usable benefit for the practical preservation, for the conservation and restoration in Ephesos and immediately contributes to the further development of the site management plan.
Archaeology, cultural landscapes, and intercultural dynamics in Ephesos
Cultural heritage is fundamental to identity and human dignity of communities and, additionally, an integral part of every landscape that has been studied archaeologically. Although Ephesos is one of the most important archaeological sites of Turkey and was recognized as a World Heritage Site in 2015, a comprehensive analysis of the cultural heritage management in entirely lacking at this site.
State of scholarship
Regarding Ephesos, the existing studies are limited to touristic aspects while for other world heritage sites – for example Angkor Wat and Petra – already in-depth analyses of the heritage management exist. However, every individual archaeological site features particularities, especially in the area of conservation, sustainability or inclusion that justify them being investigated as individual case studies.
The manner in which the public in general and the various stakeholders in particular are tied into the activities of management and protection of cultural heritage greatly influences the quality of the relations to these interest groups. Positive relationships aid in creating a more efficient and sustainable basis for both the scientific research as well as for the participation of the public. Thus, the creation of an analysis of the cultural heritage management for all archaeological sites is recommended.
All monuments surrounding Ephesos are part of a larger and broader historical ensemble. The site management should, therefore, concentrate on the sustainability of the entire inventory and less on the conservation and restoration of individual monuments or find sites. In order to meet this goal the content of this research project is to develop a precise course of action and strategy for the site management. Since multidisciplinary investigations in the field of sustainability management of cultural heritage sites, such as Ephesos, are lacking this can only be attained through a separate research project. The corresponding analysis mainly focuses on the role of the excavations in Ephesos and the presence of the World Heritage Site in the daily life of the local population. It examines the impact of cultural heritage on the development processes of local identities as well as the importance that is attributed to the sites in the public perception. A project goal is to gain more insight into the existing site management and to create a comprehensive data basis.
Why is cultural heritage important?
Closing the existing data gap will significantly contribute to facilitating the development of projects in the area of community engagement. Through the collaboration of archaeology and tourism, the local population will be empowered to contribute, in particular, to the ways in which the archaeological site is integrated into future narratives and management strategies. Therefore, the research will also deal with the influence of mass tourism. World heritage sites are increasingly attracting the attention of tourists as is demonstrated in the increase in visitor numbers. Ephesos is a typical case for this as it counted around 2 million visitors per year even before it was awarded world heritage status. The economic benefits of the tourism industry are offset by the negative influence on the state of preservation of the ruins. In order to steer the growing tourism industry, guiding strategies are necessary as is continuous dialog with all stakeholders and constant monitoring of the throngs of visitors.
Sabine Ladstätter Gabriela Krist
University for Applied Arts
OeAW-OeAI DOC-team Fellowship
Archaeological Building Research in Ephesos
Research at the site of Ephesos, which has taken place for over 125 years, is closely connected with an equally long tradition of building research. Archaeological building research in Ephesos was and remains a long-term undertaking, distinguished by various national and international research collaborations. The results of these studies can be found in recognised scientific editions.
The direct examination of individual monuments or related built structures with regard to their architecture, construction and usage is a fundamental task of the discipline of building research. Only first on this basis can investigations into longevity and history of deterioration, or into transformations of buildings, take place; these results enable the respective architecture and its historical importance to be elucidated and classified in a greater chronological and cultural context.
The city as construction site
The current research programme places, in addition to individual investigations, overarching questions regarding historical building processes and fabrication techniques as well as the availability and processing of building materials, in the foreground. The goals are to explore the comprehensive, excavated Ephesian monuments and built urban structures, by means of their architecture, function and history of usage. The project also aims to explore these structures as expressions of their respective prevailing building traditions, conditions and technological developments, all of which alter over time.
Building research and monument preservation
Cooperative work with local institutions and initiatives for monument preservation, as well as with the OeAI professional department of restoration, characterise a majority of the building research projects at Ephesos. The close connection of building research with monument preservation is deployed in most cases parallel with the field research, or works together with it hand-in-hand. Currently, for example, the baptistery of the Church of St. Mary is being consolidated and is accompanied by building-research analyses.
Ephesos 4D: The Virtual City
7reasons Medien GmbH
since March 2020
OeAW-OeAI Gesellschaft der Freunde von Ephesos
In the framework of the project 'Ephesos 4D', the multivalent graphic reconstructions of Ephesian monuments and urban conditions will be digitally modelled on the basis of uniform precepts and with the application of current geodetic data. Via the implementation of computer-supported tools and simulations, new methodical approaches are opened up, both for research into buildings and the urban image as well as for the dissemination of the research results.
In archaeology and historical building studies, graphic reconstructions of buildings and urban views have a long tradition for the representation and discussion of research results. With the project »Ephesos 4D«, taking into consideration current geodetic data, a digital total visualisation of the civic area will be produced based on international standards and uniform precepts. In the foreground of the project is the claim to scientific accuracy and sustainability of the virtual models, according to proven standards for computer-based visualisation of cultural heritage. In this manner, the ultimate published results of the Ephesian monuments and urban areas constitute the foundation for the digital visualisation. In the meta-data for the individual models, all of the underlying information and data sources, implemented working steps, yet also expected alterations on the basis of new research results, will be systematically stored. Thereby, the preconditions for its usability in future research projects as well will be guaranteed.
At first, the virtual city model signifies for Ephesos research a new instrument for the representation and mediation of individual urban phases or for the urban architectural history in general. In addition, the systematic visualisation of the research results exploits new possibilities of application for digital tools and simulations, which could be deployed for example in the framework of urbanistic or architectural-historical questions.
Abthugnos: Building research and settlement archaeological studies in the hinterland of Carthage
L’Institut National Du Patrimoine De Tunisie (INP)
ÖAW-ÖAI INP BMEIA (Süd-Nord Botschaftsprojekte, Programm Kultur- und Entwicklung 2020)
The city site of Abthugnos, until now primarily known due to the extensively preserved ruins of a capitoline forum from the 2nd century A.D., is investigated in connection with its functions as well as its features as a rural city in the hinterland of Carthage, applying methods of building research and settlement archaeology in the context of a collaborative study with L’Institut National Du Patrimoine De Tunisie (INP).
The Roman city of Abthugnos is located approximately 90 km south of Tunis in the interior of the country, near the modern village of Henchir es-Souar in the province of Zaghouan, Tunisia. The fertile landscape is characterised by the foothills of the Djebel Zaghdoud. Numerous wadis pervade the region around the city, an area which is primarily agriculturally exploited. Abthugnos probably still belonged to the territory of Carthaginian Pertica, while not far to the south-west of the city ran the Fossa Regia, the borderline between the Roman province of Africa established in 146 B.C. and the Numidian kingdom. During the reign of Emperor Hadrian, Abthugnos became a municipium (territorial city).
History of research
The well-preserved ruins of the temple on the forum, as well as additional structures and finds of inscriptions, have been described by travellers and scholars since the second half of the 19th century. In 1988, the Tunisian archaeologist Naïdé Ferchiou initiated extensive excavations and rescue work in the centre of Abthugnos in the framework of a rescue excavation by the INP. A monumental complex, which she identified as the central forum of Abthugnos with capitol and civil basilica, was excavated. Set in motion by this research, in the following years additional documentation and excavations, as well as individual restoration measures, were carried out by the INP.
Building research and settlement-archaeological studies
The excavated built structures of the monumental forum with temple and basilica will be documented with 3D laser scanning for the first time true to form in their actual state of preservation, and based on this will be analysed with regard to their architecture as well as the historic phases of building and usage. In this context, particular attention is paid to the underlying plan of the forum, which follows a scheme of Roman fora frequently applied in North Africa, as well as to questions concerning its implementation. At the same time, the foundations for a concept for the future conservation of the forum site have been created.
In the urban area, additional built structures such as cisterns, wall courses of ashlar masonry running for long sections, and paved surfaces are also visible. Deploying geophysical surveying methods and GPS surveys, the city area with its structures and architectural finds should be recorded in its entirety and analysed taking all available information into consideration. The goals are to elucidate the character of ancient and late antique Abthugnos, which became the seat of a bishop at the beginning of the 4th century, as well as to understand the significance of the city in its rural environment.
Sustainability project »Team-building Archaeology«
The current study of the archaeological ruins of Abthugnos is accompanied by a sustainability project dedicated to the relationship of the local population to the historical monuments found in their immediate vicinity. With research approaches from ›Community Archaeology‹, awareness-raising among the families in the region, for the cultural heritage should be promoted, and at the same time insights into the areas of archaeology, architectural history and monument preservation (also as future fields of education for local students) should be communicated. The aim is to develop a concept for the preservation and presentation of ancient Abthugnos, in a close exchange at the communal level and with professional expertise.
Troesmis: Roman Legionary Camp – Municipium – Late Antique and Byzantine Border Fortress
Christina Alexandrescu (Institutul de Arheologie »Vasile Parvan«) Christian Gugl Alice Waldner
Academia Romana (Institutul de Arheologie »Vasile Parvan«) Universität Innsbruck (Institut für Archäologien)
Jubiläumsfonds der Oesterreichischen Natrionalbank Nr. 16365 (2015/2016) OeAW-OeAI
Since 2011 the OeAI has participated in a cooperative project with the Archaeological Institute of the Romanian Academy of Sciences, focusing on the settlement-archaeological transformation processes along the Lower Danube in antiquity. At an exposed border site such as Troesmis, the changes in the settlement spaces and living environments from the 2nd–6th century should be investigated in an exemplary fashion, applying innovative archaeological methods of documentation and evaluation (digital documentation of evidence, photogrammetry, geophysical prospection and geo-information technology).
Troesmis (Igliţa), located in the north-west of the Dobruja, occupied a key strategic position on the Roman Danube limes. The Roman-Byzantine settlement lay on the right steep slope of the Danube, approximately 15 km south of today's town of Măcin and 4 km north of the village of Turcoaia (jud. Tulcea). The extensive ruined site, which is dominated by two remains of fortification walls that are still visible today, extends from the Danube towards the east, as far as the foothills of the Măcin mountain range.
We know from historical sources that, during the mid-imperial period, probably from the Trajanic era up until the Marcomannic wars, the Legio V Macedonica was stationed in Troesmis. Although an older Getic-Odrysian settlement was mentioned already by Ovid in the »Epistulae ex Ponto« (4, 9, 78–79), nevertheless nothing is known archaeologically about pre-Roman or early imperial Troesmis.
In the later years of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, municipal status was bestowed on Troesmis. The extent of the mid-imperial settlement on the surrounding fields, on which numerous scattered finds (architectural blocks, architectural ceramics, pottery vessels) continually come to light, is not yet documented. According to the most recent estimates, the settlement area ought to have comprised approximately 50 ha. A number of streets, at least one underground water conduit (›Trajan's wall‹), and a number of tumulus-like structures – presumably tombs – can be seen on aerial photographs and in the relief of the terrain on fields immediately before the settlement.
The construction of the so-called eastern fortification has been dated to Late Antiquity due to considerations of its architectural typology and criteria of fortification techniques. It was already extensively excavated in the second half of the 19th century, whereby the course of the breastwork with a number of towers and the main gate, as well as large areas of the inner construction, were documented. Essentially, only parts of the curtain wall of the western fortification, located ca. 700 m distant, are known. Numerous inscriptions dating to the 2nd and 3rd centuries were built into both fortification sites as spolia, providing important information regarding the administrative and settlement structures of mid-imperial Troesmis.
A series of clues indicate that the western fortification was only used during the Byzantine period. In addition to the settlement activity, attested by small finds, pottery, and coins from the 10th to the 13th centuries, rescue excavations in 1977 on the plateau between the two fortifications brought to light numerous – probably Mediaeval – inhumation burials. These observations, which are to be interpreted in the context of the redevelopment of the Byzantine border defence along the Lower Danube, also correspond with the last-known reference to Troesmis in the written sources by Emperor Constantine VII (Porphyrogenitus) (De Them. 47, 17).
During the field campaign of 2011, the still visible architectural remains of the eastern fortification, the western fortification and the imperial era Canabae legionis were documented. In 2012 and 2013, a surface survey in the core area of the Roman-Byzantine city was carried out: the extent of the settlement could be defined by means of Line Walking. Over a surface of ca. 2 ha., a grid survey was carried out in the western fortification (middle Byzantine), the eastern fortification (Late Antique) and in the imperial Canabae, where the surface material was gathered together in the area of an excavation site open since the 1970s.
In addition to the mapping of the remains of the Roman water conduit, a team from the University of Innsbruck (Institute for Archaeology) carried out extensive geomagnetic measurements which resulted in significant information about the Roman settlement of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, including the localisation of the camp of Legio V Macedonica. In the meantime, the large settlement spaces of the legionary camp/municipium, Canabae, and burial grounds can be clearly distinguished. With the aid of geomagnetic applications, concrete conclusions regarding the structure of the development of the Canabae, as well as the tumulus burial grounds north-east of the legionary camp, are attainable. It is now thereby possible, for the first time on the Lower Danube limes, to better understand the environment of the military camps which are generally favoured sites of investigation. The evaluation of the artefacts collected on the surface also permits the reconstruction of the relocation of the settlement from a chronological long-term perspective, extending from the imperial period (2nd/3rd century AD) over Late Antiquity and up until the Middle Ages. By these means, the extent of the Middle Byzantine settlement of the 10th to the 13th century in particular, which was fortified multiple times, can be very well understood.
University of Innsbruck, Department of Provincial Roman Archaeology Römerstadt Carnuntum – Museum Carnuntinum – Kulturfabrik Hainburg, Provincial Gouvernment-department of art and culture Bundesdenkmalamt, Department of Archaeology Iseum Savariense / Savaria Múzeum Collection of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Narodni muzej Slovenije/Arheološki oddelek
In the project »Noric-Pannonian costume« a group of researchers is studying specific artifacts (fibula and belt elements) that are widely considered to be a central component of Roman female costume and their attestations have been preserved in the area of the two eponymous Roman provinces. Digital 3D models of the finds and further research data is being made accessible in an online database (www.cfir.science).
Half a century has passed since the publication of the monograph »Die norisch-pannonische Frauentracht im 1. und 2. Jahrhundert/The Noric-Pannonian female costume in the 1st and 2nd century« (1965) by J. Garbsch. The resumption of a detailed discussion on the subject of the ›Noric-Pannonian Costume‹ has long been a gap in provincial Roman archaeology. In the meantime, the source material has improved, i.e. there are numerous new finds of fibula and belt components as well as stones with corresponding representations, but in this context we might add that questions have changed and archaeological methods and technical possibilities have evolved.
The research project with the working title »Noric-Pannonian Costume« was initiated in 2015 and is institutionally housed at the OEAI (Ch. Hinker, Ch. Gugl), and at the University of Innsbruck (G. Grabherr) and takes this situation into account. The innovative method of find recording with the structured-light scanner permits the creation of exact 3D models of the different components of the costume made of non-ferrous metals and precious metals. These 3D models are displayed in a database developed for this project where all project-relevant information including find site is recorded according to its availability through the current state of publication. The aim is to make an online database available to the scientific community so that with its help relevant finds and find sites that are currently widely dispersed in specialized literature can be easily researched. Furthermore, the database offers retrievable 3D models that are significantly more precise than the traditional typologies in 2D through an online-tool for the typological identification of old and new finds. Finally, the inclusion of geographical information systems makes it possible for the user to create distribution maps of different fibula types and/or belt components.
Aspects regarding the digital humanities in this research project are mainly being overseen by Ch. Gugl.
Cultural and historical questions
The cultural and historical interpretation of the sources is a basic project aim in addition to the further development of technical methods as part of the exploitation and preparation of archaeological sources. To this effect the accordingly prepared data made accessible through the database offers countless options. The conditions for the creation of a specific Noric-Pannonian female costume, its relation to the male costume or even to other costumes in the Roman Empire, regional differences as manifest through so-called costume groups and/or workshop circles, the mobility of the wearers of this costume, and finally the conditions leading to its demise and disappearance will be investigated.
The data collection and input as well as the cultural and historical interpretation is mainly being conducted by Christoph Hinker.
Temenos and Territor: Economic Power and Social Impact of the Sanctuary of Artemis in Ephesos in the Roman Imperial Era and beyond
In the frame of a new program of the Austrian Science Fund called »Young Independent Research Group« (YIRG), developed in cooperation with the OeAW to promote interdisciplinary research, a team of young scientists is dedicated to the transformation of an ancient sanctuary during Roman and Late Antique periods, with a view on the Medieval phases of use. The project was submitted jointly with the former Institute for the Cultural History of Antiquity at the OeAW, which has now as Department of Classical Studies been part of the OeAI since 2021. The lead researchers of this project are Lilli Zabrana (archaeology, architecture, coordinator), Vera Hofmann (ancient history, epigraphy) and Verena Fugger (late antique archaeology, history of religion). Pedro Gonçalves as research assistant is responsible for the geoarchaeological analyses and their interpretation.
Lilli Zabrana (coordination) Vera Hofmann Verena Fugger
Erich Draganits (University of Vienna, Department of Geodynamics and Sedimentology) Markus Öhler (University of Vienna, Department of New Testament Studies) Walter Prochaska (Montanuniversität Leoben) Georg Plattner (Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien) Andreas Rhoby (OeAW, Insitute for Medieval Research, Byzantine Research) Wolfgang Spickermann (University of Graz, Institut für Alte Geschichte und Altertumskunde) Hans Taeuber, Thomas Corsten (University of Vienna, Institute for Ancient History, Papyrology and Epigraphy) Anna-Katharina Rieger (Graduiertenkolleg Universität Graz und Erfurt)
Jan N. Bremmer (University of Groningen) Neal Spencer, Peter Higgs (British Museum London, Department Greece and Rome) Marietta Horster (University of Mainz, Historical Seminar, Ancient History) Ine Jacobs (University of Oxford, Byzantine Archaeology) Francois Kirbihler (Université de Lorraine) Luke Lavan (University of Kent, Classical and Archaeological Studies) Jörg Rüpke (University of Erfurt, Religionswissenschaft) Walter Scheidel (Stanford University, Departement of Classics and History) Cengiz Topal (Ephesos Museum Selçuk) Troels Myrup Kristensen (Aarhus University, School of Culture and Society – Classical Archaeology) Philipp Niewöhner (University of Göttingen, Christian Archaeology and Byzantine History of Art) Patrick Sänger (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Seminar of Ancient History)
Religous Studies and Research History of the Artemision
The traditional archaeological examination of ancient sites where religion was practised has concentrated for a long time on mythological questions as well as ultimately on the rituals themselves as a key to the understanding of religion. In archaeological research this approach is reflected in the concentration on the cult buildings in sanctuaries as well as on votive deposits. The Artemision at Ephesos offers a perfect example, being one of the largest and most famous sanctuaries of antiquity. Since its rediscovery 125 years ago the consecutive temples and their related altars formed the focal point of archaeological research, whereas the surrounding sacred temenos, once densely developed, remained without investigation. However recent research gives evidence of the multidimensional character of the extra-urban sanctuary in the Roman Imperial Era with the Temple of Artemis as part of a complex of buildings corresponding to its social, economical and religious significance. The Artemision at Ephesos in the Roman imperial era therefore represents the almost perfect set of preconditions for investigating Roman religious practices in their socio-cultural context, as well as the organisation and infrastructure of a sanctuary and its economic power yet, furthermore, also to understand the sanctuary in a time-space-model from a cultural-geographical perspective.
Shared objectives and new research questions
Apart from traditional researches on sanctuaries, the proposed project links up with historical, archaeological, architectonic and geographical data in order to understand the organism of the Artemision at Ephesos from a spatial, chronological and socio-cultural perspective. It is not the sacred buildings and votive deposits which form the focus of the investigation, but rather the sacred precinct (temenos) and the properties of the sanctuary (territorium) as infrastructural facilities. Moreover also the Late Antique history of the sanctuary has scarcely been investigated, a history which culminated in its closure and abandonment.
The proposed YIRG-Project is breaking new ground with the analysis of an ancient sanctuary by the interweaving specifically oriented in an interdisciplinary manner, of humanistic and scientific disciplines, extending over all phases and aspects of the project.
The significance of the YIRG goes far beyond Ephesos research, but opens up new perspectives for the Austrian research landscape by giving an important new stimulus to the Austrian scientific landscape, due to the incorporation of internationally renowned specialists in the area of »Religious Studies«.
Leithaprodersdorf: Analysis and Classification of a rural Settlement in the Hinterland of the north-west Pannonian Limes
Lucia Clara Formato
Bundesdenkmalamt Konstantina Saliari (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien) Michael Doneus – Ulrike Fornwagner (Luftbildarchiv der Universität Wien)
By means of the FWF-Project on the Roman settlement near Leithaprodersdorf, a comprehensive analysis of a rural settlement in north-west Pannonia will be possible for the first time. The project encompasses the chronological, typological, archaeozoological and functional investigation of this rural settlement, as well as an inventory of the burial site belonging to it.
Archaeological research in the hinterland of the Roman Danubian border
For a long time, scientific examination of Roman remains of the rural hinterland of north-west Pannonia occupied only a secondary role in contrast to the study of the Roman Danubian border. Grave stones record that numerous settlers of Celtic and German origin must have lived in the rural areas of the province. We know very little, however, about their settlement structures and how, or from what time, an adaptation to a Roman lifestyle took place here.
The excavations of the settlement at Leithaprodersdorf
The investigation of the Leithaprodersdorf settlement is particularly well suited for gaining information about the settlement and population structures of the Roman hinterland. At Leithaprodersdorf, a multi-phase Roman settlement site has been archaeologically examined between 2005–2015. Its cemetery is also known, and the necropolis has already been scientifically evaluated. During this evaluation it became clear that the burial site at the beginning was very ›un-Roman‹ in character, a fact which raises questions in turn about the autochthonous nature of the settlement.
New insights into rural settlement structures
By means of the analysis of the settlement, a comparison with the burial field can now take place in segments. Thereby, questions regarding the house and settlement structures, as well as their transformations from the 1st to the 4th century A.D., can be clarified. The investigation of the burial field revealed that typically Roman tomb monuments were first erected after the burial site had existed for approximately 50 years. Furthermore, other decidedly ›Roman‹ objects (Terra Sigillata) were first used relatively late in the burial site. These noticeable issues should also be pursued in the settlement on the basis of socio-cultural, contextual and history-of-trade aspects.
Scientific methods for the evaluation of the settlement
In addition, the total extent of the settlement should be understood via the evaluation of aerial photographs. The coin finds from the settlement will be assessed in the research group of Numismatics of the OeAI. The analysis of animal bones is exceptionally significant for the project. Since the spectrum of animal breeds and the size of growth of particular animals were often influenced by Roman practice after the conquest of a province, here, too, a transformation from indigenous to ›imported‹ animal breeds is assumed. For the first time, a comprehensive chronological, typological, archaeozoological and functional analysis of a rural settlement in north-west Pannonia will be feasible in the framework of the FWF-Project.
Potzneusiedl: Analysis of an inhumation burial group of early Pannonians
Lucia Clara Formato
Stephan Schiffels – Angela Mötsch (Max-Planck-Institut für Menschheitsgeschichte, Abteilung für Archäogenetik) Konstantina Saliari (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien)
since September 2019
Hans-Böckler-Stiftung Energie Burgenland Land Burgenland Bundesdenkmalamt
With the discovery of the Potzneusiedl graves, the so-called Norican-Pannonian costume has now been definitively identified in the archaeological record. This group of inhumation burials indicates a strongly autochthonous character of those buried. Antiquarian analyses based on small finds, and bioarchaeological examinations should help in the investigation of the socio-cultural origin, the status, and the familial relationships of those buried here.
Discovery of the group of inhumation burials
Since the 1930s, Roman finds have repeatedly been discovered in the vicinity of the find site near Potzneusiedl (Burgenland). For this reason, the archaeological investigation of the area by the Federal Monuments Office (BDA) prior to the erection of a wind turbine was not surprising. Unexpectedly, in 2011 a section of a Roman era burial site was encountered: 48 cremation burials and 27 inhumation graves were able to be brought to light, whereby the inhumation burials represent the earliest and best-preserved Roman-period inhumation burials in north-west Pannonia to date.
The earliest inhumation burials from the north-west Pannonian region
The date of the inhumation burials, which are unusual for the north-west Pannonian region, can be described as thus far unique. The first graves were already laid out in the Tiberian period and therefore fall within an early phase of the history of the province. Furthermore, the find materials indicate contacts with the northern Danubian regions as well as with more southerly areas such as northern Italy.
The grave goods of the ›Norican-Pannonian‹ costume
With the Potzneusiedl graves, the ›Norican-Pannonia costume‹, until now almost exclusively recorded on grave stelai, can now for the first time be clearly recorded in large number in the archaeological evidence. In at least 11 of 27 inhumation graves, individuals were found who were equipped with elements of this clothing fashion. Amongst these are found Norican-Pannonian wing fibulae, eye- and disc fibulae, as well as a Norican-Pannonian belt fitting. In addition to these finds, very well-preserved ceramic grave goods and remains of wood on silver mirrors represent special features.
Together with the immediate location in the hinterlands of Carnuntum, the early date of the graves, the grave goods and the custom of inhumation burial raise numerous questions: to which period should the burials be precisely assigned? Can familial relationships between the individuals be recognised? May statements regarding the state of health as well as the age at death be made, which in turn allow conclusions regarding the social status of those buried? Can those interred perhaps be associated with a specific ›ethnic group‹ (Germans/Celts)? Which supra-regional contacts can be reconstructed based on the grave goods?
An interdisciplinary research approach
In the framework of the research project, the questions raised here will be pursued with the aid of antiquarian and bioarchaeological expertise based on small finds. The antiquarian analyses and the evaluation of the evidence are carried out by the project leader. Via the incorporation of anthropological investigations, the pathological degeneration and the age at death of the individuals will be illuminated. aDNA analyses should help to clarify familial relationships and sex-specific questions, amongst others. Finally, archaeobotanical and archaeozoological analyses will allow statements regarding the types of plants and animals used. With this interdisciplinary approach, as comprehensive a reconstruction as possible of the ancient living environment of these ›early Pannonians‹ should be feasible.
Zollfeld: Necropolis of Virunum
As part of the fieldwork 179 burials and 31 grave enclosures were documented including contexts that are unique for Austria and have a great potential for the in-depth discussion of provincial Roman research questions. In general it must be noted that with the underlying burial contexts for the first time a representative section of the burial ground of the provincial capital of Noricum is available to scholarship. Furthermore, based on the Necropolis Virunum it is possible to trace how a flat cemetery with simple cremation and inhumation burials developed into a necropolis with elaborate burial monuments in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE.
Bundesdenkmalamt, Department of Archaeology
For the first time a representative section of the Roman burial ground of the provincial capital of Noricum is being archaeologically and anthropologically evaluated in the project »Necropolis of Virunum«. 179 cremation and inhumation burials provide numerous points of contact for research questions that reach from origin, identity, status of the dead, and their human biology to changes in burial forms and funerary rituals.
In cooperation with the Bundesdenkmalamt (J. Fürnholzer, B. Hebertt) the scientific study of the rescue excavations from 2001 to 2003 (ARGIS, G. Fuchs) in the southern necropolis of Virunum (Zollfeld, Carinthia) are taking place at the OEAI.
In terms of the social stratification of the burial ground the possible use of individual burial quarters by various family associations must be noted. Furthermore, the inhumation burials of the 1st–2nd century CE are a poorly known research aspect because it has generally been assumed that cremation was the common form of burial ritual during this time period. It must be researched whether these inhumations of adult individuals reflects the continuation of autochthonous traditions (›conservatism‹), changes in the structure of the population through migration (›migration‹), or the socio-economic and legal conditions of the buried (›status‹). Additionally, attention must be drawn to the numerous burial contexts dated through chronologically sensitive artifacts and the exemplary documentation of the relative sequence of burial contexts that cover two occupancy horizons.
Continuity and Change: Rural Settlement Structures on the upper Drau from the Iron Age until Late Antiquity
Gerald Grabherr (Institute for Archaeology of the University of Innsbruck) Christian Gugl Christoph Hinker Stephan Pircher
Moises Hernandez Cordero Viktor Jansa
Land Kärnten OeAW-OeAI
In the discipline of archaeology, the examination of the structure and development of rural spaces beyond the urban centres has been long neglected in favour of the investigation of central sites. Precisely in regions that are characterised by extreme physiographic circumstances, particular settlement forms emerged that were adapted to these regional conditions. Within the framework of the project »Continuity and Change« these small rural settlements and their embeddedness in the specific topographic context will be pursued using modern methods of settlement and landscape archaeology.
The research area is concentrated on the upper Drau valley, the most important west-east axis in the southern Alpine region; here, numerous smaller settlement cells are comparatively investigated diachronically from the Iron Age until Late Antiquity, in cooperation with the Institute for Archaeology of the University of Innsbruck:
The Burgbichl bei Irschen (Upper Drau valley, Carinthia): a fortified Late Antique hilltop settlement with early Christian church (project responsibility: G. Grabherr, C. Gugl) The Klostenfrauenbichl in Lienz (East Tyrol): cult continuity in a rural sanctuary from the late Latène period until the Roman epoch (project responsibility: G. Grabherr, C. Gugl) Mühldorf (Möll valley, Carinthia): a Roman valley settlement and its usage of landscape and resources (project responsibility: S. Pircher) Emmersdorf (Rosental, Carinthia) – a late Latène and Roman era bridge settlement and transhipment point on the Drau
The focal point lies initially on a hilltop settlement near Irschen in the Upper Drau valley, where excavations have been carried out on the so-called Burgbichl since 2016. In the process, remains of an early Christian church as well as parts of the fortification wall of this Late Antique settlement could be brought to light. A decisive location factor for the settlement of the small-scale region of Irschen-Oberdrauburg has always been the position at the intersection of the Drau valley route and the north-south conjunction with a connection in the direction of Italy.
For the first time in the eastern Alpine region, with the excavations at Klosterfrauenbichl in Lienz, a cult site that was continually in use from the late Latène period until the Roman imperial period could be investigated; not only numerous cult and dedication objects (weapons and other iron finds, fibulae, coins, figural lead and bronze votives etc.) but also significant architectural structures are present here. The question concerning the tribal sanctuary of the Celtic Laianci, who can be located in the Lienz basin in the late Iron Age, is also connected with this site.
The Roman site near Mühldorf, from which a large bath building with high-quality furnishings was already known, is representative for the settlement of the Alpine valley landscape during the Roman imperial period. Located at the egress of the Möll valley, this site is predestined for the posing of questions dealing with the economic background (mining?), as well as with usage of landscape and resources in the first centuries A.D.
Archaeological Survey in Carnuntum
LBI Archpro (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut für Archäologische Prospektion und Virtuelle Archäologie) Luftbildarchiv (Institut für Urgeschichte und Historische Archäologie Wien) Museum Carnuntinum Bundesdenkmalamt
Land Niederösterreich OeAW-OeAI
A new chapter in the research into the Roman metropolis on the Danube has been opened up with the extensive surveying scheme carried out in Carnuntum during the last two decades. Meanwhile, it has been possible to supplement the comprehensive aerial archaeological and geophysical investigations with a series of surface surveys in the border regions of the suburban camp (Canabae Legionis) as well as of the civil town (Municipium Aelium, Colonia Septimia).
The large areas that can be investigated today via archaeological survey offer new opportunities, above all with regard to the contextualisation both of individual objects as well as of entire settlement zones. In this manner, the constraints of traditional methods, that at best offer small-scale insights into settlement structures, can be overcome. By means of combining a variety of survey methods, and via the joint evaluation of excavation and survey data, new interpretive approaches can be gained which should be worked out in the framework of this project with the following emphases:
The discovery of the Castra singularium sheds completely new light on the governor's seat of Carnuntum, which can now be very well reconstructed thanks to the survey results. For this reason, Carnuntum meanwhile is one of the clearest examples for the appearance of a governor's seat in the border provinces of the Roman empire.
Settlement boundaries and the hinterland of Carnuntum
The extent of the ancient settlement as well as the structure of the hinterland can only be understood archaeologically with the aid of aerial photography or with geophysical large-scale surveys. The latter have been particularly successful in Carnuntum in reconstructing the concrete borders of settlement regions. Due to the open landscape, the region around Carnuntum is exceptionally favourable for large-scale investigations of the peri-urban and rural space. The particular attraction at Carnuntum, however, also lies in the surviving epigraphic monuments, in particular the recorded inscriptions with the mentioning of a »league border«, which suggests the social and administrative-legal organisation of the inhabitants.
The following dissertations are connected with the project:
Benedikt Grammer: »Roman Settlement Patterns in Western Pannonia«, University of Vienna, Institute for Prehistory and Historical Archaeology (Supervisors: M. Doneus, C. Gugl) Mario Wallner: »Spatio-temporal analysis of the western ›suburbs‹ of the Roman town of Carnuntum, based on GIS based multi method integrated interpretation of prospection data«, University of Vienna, Institute for Prehistory and Historical Archaeology (Supervisors: W. Neubauer, C. Gugl)
Archaeology of the Roman Provinces in the Latin West
Team Lucia Clara Formato Christoph Hinker Silvia Radbauer
The research group »Archaeology of the Roman Provinces in the Latin West« investigates the human-caused alterations to the settlement character and population structures in the western Roman empire. Via the analysis of urban and rural settlements, cemeteries, and the contextual evaluation of archaeological artefacts – applied over a variety of observation periods – a modified picture of the population, and its relationship to settlement space and the economic sphere, should be developed. Issues regarding cultural homogeneity and the disintegration of cultural boundaries under the influence of political, eco-social and demographic changes will be considered.
Head Christian Gugl
Trogir Through Time
Martin Steskal Lujana Paraman Marina Ugarković
Muzej grada Trogira/Trogir Town Museum Institut za Arheologiju/Institute of Archaeology Zagreb
OeAW-OeAI Croatian Ministry of Culture external cooperation partners
In 2017, cooperation contracts were signed with the Trogir Town Museum and the Institute of Archaeology in Zagreb in order to study ancient Tragurion/Tragurium and its hinterland in a diachronic and interdisciplinary manner. Trogir, located in central Dalmatia on the Adriatic coast of Croatia, provides an excellent opportunity to examine the Illyrian, Greek, and Roman occupation of this territory. The research is carried out with the support of the Croatian Ministry of Culture.
Ancient Tragurion was founded by the Greek colony of Issa (modern-day city of Vis on the eponymous island) in the late 3rd century BCE. This correlates with the typical pattern of Greek colony foundations in this area: first the islands and then a bit later the mainland was settled. At the same time close interactions took place with the indigenous population referred to as Illyrian, however, their actual appearance is still not fully understood. As part of the project »Trogir Through Time« we are dealing with the transition from a proto-urban settlement form to a Greek colony as well as questioning the very late start of active influence of Rome on this area. Central to the research is the cohabitation of the indigenous population with the new settlers under the changing political conditions of the region which apparently was very difficult to govern. Furthermore, it will be investigated to what extent external cultural influences are revealed in daily life and the material culture.
As part of the cooperation project, intensive, extensive and geophysical surveys as well as stratigraphic excavations are planned. The surveys will refine and complete the already existing mapping of the ancient remains in the territory of Tragurion. In the densely settled city of modern-day Trogir – a UNESCO world heritage site since 1997 – questions regarding urban planning but also of chronology, and history of use will be studied through selected stratigraphic excavations from a diachronic perspective. Field archaeological research will also take place surrounding the hillforts of the indigenous population, particularly also the various burial places and the villas located in the territory.
Pompeii: Insula VII 4 ‒ Building history and urban development
Christoph Baier Horacio González Cesteros
A. Ribera i Lacomba (Stadtverwaltung Valencia, SIAM) Parco Archeologico di Pompei Alexander Sokolicek (University of Salzburg)
since May 2018
Insula VII 4 is in a crucial position to understand the ties between two key regions in the controversy about Pompeii’s urbanization: the Altstadt and Regio VI. Based on detailed investigations of our cooperation partner Albert Ribera i Lacomba in the Casa di Arianna (Regio VII 4, 31.51), one of the largest city houses of Pompeii, new research aims at a cohesive study of the complex interrelations between the house and larger architectural ensemble of the building block as well as into the spatial organization and land-use during the early phases of the settlement.
Since 2018 a multidisciplinary team of the OeAI Dpt. of Historical Archaeology has been working on the study of the Casa di Arianna in the Regio VII in Pompeii (VII 4, 31.51) in collaboration with the Sección de Arquelogía (SIAM) del Ayuntamiento de Valencia (A. Ribera i Lacomba) and with the kind permission of the Parco Archeologico di Pompei. Stratigraphic excavations by our cooperation partner at various spots within the house as well as architectural studies have revealed that the development of the building from the 2nd century BC onward is tightly linked to the evolution of the adjacent properties. Moreover, the excavation results indicate that the spatial structure and the topography of this area during the early phases of the settlement had a long-term impact on the spatial configuration of Insula VII 4 and on the design of its houses.
Starting from these results, the first objective of the new investigations is the accurate documentation of the Casa di Arianna and subsequently of the ensemble of the neighbouring houses. On this basis, further studies will have the intention to shed light not only on the gradual development of residential architecture from the early 2nd century BC onward but also on other phenomena that play an essential role in the processes of urbanization from the Archaic period onward, such as the evolution of the street system and the character of the land-use between the Altstadt and Regio VI.
La Casa di Arianna
With a surface area of nearly 1,800 m2 the Casa di Arianna is one of the largest city houses of Pompeii. It covers the entire north-south extension of the building block at the eastern end of the insula VII 4. In 79 CE, the building complex included around 70 different rooms. They were organized around three distributor areas (atrium – central peristyle – north peristyle) that were arranged along a continuous longitudinal axis. The preserved situation is the result of a long and complex construction and use history that is closely linked to that of the adjoining buildings of the insula VII 4 (Casa della Caccia Antica [VII 4,48]; Casa del Granduca di Toscana [VII 4,56]; Casa dei Capitelli Figurati [VII 4,57]; Casa del Forno a Riverbero [VII 4,29]).
Initial results and outlook
In order to lay the foundations for the detailed study of the architectural ensemble, in 2018 the built fabric of the Casa di Arianna, Casa del Granduca di Toscana, Casa dei Capitelli figurati and Casa del Forno a Riverbero was recorded using a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and structure-from-motion photogrammetry. Thanks to this documentation, for the first time the true and complex surface geometries of a large ensemble of houses within Insula VII 4 can be cohesively analysed, enabling us to instantly observe different wall thicknesses, skew angles, deformations and other relevant traces of the construction history. The data will serve as a highly precise basis for the traditional drawn documentation of the building on site in ground plans, sections and views.
Based on a preliminary on site survey conducted in 2019, the Casa dei Capitelli figurati and the Casa del Forno a Riverbero in the central part of Insula VII 4 have been identified as a focus area for future investigations into the urbanization processes of this part of Pompeii. Judging by the evidence made available through previous investigations and by the integration of the block into its wider urban context, we assume that the area during its early phases was crossed by a street running in north-south direction and perhaps also by another traffic route in east-west direction. Set against the background of the wider evolution of Pompeii, new multi-disciplinary fieldwork in Insula VII 4 will have the objective to refine our conceptions of what the character of the settlement was like during the early phases of its existence and of how profound the impact of these phases was on the subsequent transformations of the insula.
Migrations, Colonisations and Colonialisms
Claude Doumet-Serhal (British Museum, London) Francisca Mermati (Parco Archeologico dei Campi Flegrei, Naples) Mathias Mehofer (University of Vienna, VIAS) Jacques Y. Perreault (University of Montreal) Zisis Bonias (Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports) Marie-Henriette Gates (Bilkent University, Ankara) Gunnar Lehmann (Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva) Hans Mommsen (University of Bonn, Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics)
Greek and Phoenician ›colonisations‹ were two of the most influential migratory phenomena in the antiquity that shaped the history and culture of Mediterranean. The Greek ›colonial‹ venture and the interaction with the Phoenicians or the >colonised< populations is the subject of several individual projects. There are two different approaches in the study of ancient mobility in this respect. On the one hand, the focus is on the study of the earliest phases of the Greek ›colonisation‹ in the northern Aegean and Italy. On the other hand, we focus on the social and cultural interactions between the Aegean and the Phoenician world in eastern and western Mediterranean.
The Eraly Greek colonization in Macedonia and Italy
Origin, motivation, form, and perception of a large migration in antiquity
The darkest and yet most fascinating phase of the Greek colonization is its beginning. Motivation, form, and date of the first “colonial” expeditions are still highly debated. Current field work in the northern Aegean, particularly in the ancient cities of Mende on Chalkidike and Argilos in the Strymonic Gulf, has revealed new information and permits comparative analyses with the earliest Greek settlements in Italy. The aim of this interdisciplinary project is to conduct a comparative study of early Greek colonization in Macedonia and Italy during the Late Geometric and early Archaic periods.
Apoikismos | colonization | colonialism
In ancient Greek “apoikismos” refers to the abandonment of home and the subsequent settlement abroad. “Apoikismos” was translated in the modern period as “colonization” which is etymologically based on the Roman “colonia”, a military camp used to control the subjugated population. Nowadays, it is evident that this translation has connotations related to the ideology of the mighty western European colonial powers of the last centuries.
Mende: The earliest Greek colony in the northern Aegean
The study of early Greek “colonisation” is primarily based on the analysis of the archaeological material from the Early Iron Age and Archaic settlement phases of Mende which was one of the best-known Euboean colonies in the northern Aegean. Archaeological material from the earliest stratified contexts of this site has already been statistically and typologically analyzed with the aim of elucidating the cultural impact of Greek colonization in the region of Chalkidike.
Argilos: Pre- and early colonial pottery
Aspects of social and cultural identity of the indigenous precolonial and early colonial communities in the northern Aegean are further studied at Argilos that was “colonised” by the Cycladic island Andros in the 7th century BCE. The aim of pottery studies at this recently excavated – by Jacques Perreault and Zisis Bonias – “colonial” site is to elucidate the cultural diversity of a socially mixed community. By this means, we wish to scrutinize the transformation of cultural identities that took place through a historically recorded migratory process in another microregion of the northern Aegean, along the Strymonic Gulf.
Comparative study of archaeological data from Macedonia and Italy
The analysis of the archaeological material of Mende and the comparative study with other sites with “colonial” connotations in Macedonia and Italy provide new insights into the historical phenomenon of early “apoikismos”. By bridging the gap between research focused on either end of the Greek colonial expansion, it is possible to overcome old prejudices and examine the validity of new models. According to these models, the Greek colonization was not a collection of individual events but a process towards the formation of new socio-political entities and identities.
The reconstruction of the early colonial relations will be supported by a number of archaeometric analyses. This includes, for example, radiocarbon dating of contextualized, short-lived samples, archaeometallurgical analyses of bronze objects in terms of ancient networks for the trade of ore, neutron activation and petrographic pottery analyses for the clarification of the provenance as well as technological studies that will provide information about sudden changes in the ceramic production. Finally, a summarizing archaeobotanical study will provide a better understanding of the natural environment with which the colonists were confronted in their ventures in Macedonia and Italy.
Early Iron Age Greek pottery exchange and consumption in the Mediterranean
The social context of Greek pottery consumption overseas
Studies of cultural exchange during the Εarly Iron Age in the Mediterranean traditionally focus on pottery which in the past has often been viewed as evidence of human mobility. However, other social aspects of economic and social behaviour (production, gift or commodity exchange, consumption) have often been neglected.
The starting point of the new study of the Protogeometric and Geometric pottery in non-mainland Greek contexts, i.e. in Greek colonies and non-Greek sites in the Mediterranean, is the determination of origin based on Neutron activation analysis (NAA). A total of around 350 pottery sherds, clays and other reference material from 22 sites in the western and eastern Mediterranean have already been analysed by Hans Mommsen: Thasos, Argilos, Mende, Sindos, Kastanas, Polichni, Polykastro (northern Greece); Elateia, Kynos (central Greece); Koprivlen (Bulgaria); Klazomenai, Teos (Turkey); Pithekoussai, Cumae, Sarno (Campania); Naxos (Sicily); Sidon, Tyre (Lebanon); Ras-el-Bassit (Syria); Utica (Tunisia); Huelva, Malaga (southern Spain). Aspects of wine consumption as a social instrument in a period shortly before or during the institutionalization of the symposium in the Mediterranean will be central to the discussion.
Greek Protogeometric and Geometric pottery consumption at Kinet Höyük and Sidon
In the past, the Early Iron Age Greek pottery in the eastern Mediterranean has been seen as evidence for Greek mobility or colonisation. Today, this pottery is mainly understood to represent special drinking vessels that were used by the local Levantine population and in some cases was full of ritual symbolism. Following the recent excavations by Marie Henriette Gates and Claude Doumet Serhal over the course of the last decades, Kinet Höyük (southern Turkey) and Sidon (Lebanon) rank respectively among the find sites alongside Tyros, al Mina, Tell Ta’yinat and Misis with the largest quantity of Iron Age Greek pottery in the Levant.
An interesting aspect in the use of Greek pottery at Kinet Höyük and Sidon is that it was continuously imported into these Cilician and Phoenician sites from the Protogeometric to the late Geometric period. Another important aspect is the repertoire of vessel shapes which suggests an export-oriented strategy on the part of the Greek workshops.
The new finds from Kinet Höyük and Sidon are particularly important because for the first time in the Levant it is possible to study fairly large assemblages of Greek pottery in their context as a result of modern excavations. Furthermore, for the first time a statistical evaluation as well as a comparative study of the Greek, Phoenician and other pottery wares from the same contexts was carried out. A series of radiocarbon analyses has already been conducted at Sidon providing new evidence about the correlation of the Levantine and Aegean chronology.
The urban structure of Lousoi in the Hellenistic period
National research partner
Immo Trinks (Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Archäologische Prospektion und Virtuelle Archäologie)
Jamieson C. Donati (Laboratory of Geophysical - Satellite Remote Sensing & Archaeo-environment of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies / Foundation of Research & Technology) Evangelia Kiriatzi (British School at Athens, Fitch Laboratory) Ioannis Maniatis (NCSR »DEMOKRITOS«, Laboratory of Archaeometry, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology) Elisabeth Trinkl (Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Institut für Klassische Archäologie)
OeAI OeAW (Post-DocTrack-Pilotprogramm)
FWF-Projekt P31801-G25 „Die Stadtstruktur von Lousoi im Hellenismus“
The polis of Lousoi on the Peloponnese provides the opportunity to examine numerous aspects of an ancient Greek urban culture from the point of view of a small but rich in traditions and supra-regionally well-connected settlement. An interdisciplinary research project is focused on key questions regarding the expansion and the development structure of Lousoi as well as the functional organization and urban spatial development of the public center of the polis.
Research history of Lousoi
The ancient town of Lousoi in the northern Peloponnese is located on the south-eastern edge of the fertile high plateau of Sudena surrounded by mountainsides. Located in the border region between the ancient landscapes of Achaia and Arcadia, the city was of regional significance already fairly early due to the existence of the cult of Artemis Hemera since the Geometric period. The study of the sanctuary and the settlement began in 1898/1899 and has continued since 1980 by the Athens branch of the OeAI. It has shown that the material culture of ancient Lousoi had in many ways remarkable local peculiarities. At the same time, the development of the city was shaped significantly through its inclusion in regional and supra-regional communication and transaction networks.
Preliminary work on the topography and settlement structure
The town limits of Lousoi were not built over after antiquity and due to its limited size of about 20-40 ha it is ideally suited for a systematic analysis of the entire settlement structure. In 2015–2017, the creation of a topographical map of the settlement, a high-resolution orthophotomap, and a large-scale architectural survey led to initial fundamental insights on urban connections. In the area of the public center as well as in its immediate vicinity a pilot study was carried out in order to test the suitability of different geophysical survey methods for the large-scale documentation of subsoil building remains in the urban area. At the same time in 2017 excavations in the city center were resumed which from 2000 to 2012 had led to important insights on the urban development from the Geometric to early Imperial period.
First results on the settlement structure
In relation to the spatial structure of the city and the archaeologically tangible buildings of Hellenistic Lousoi, a survey of the underlying evidence reveals a remarkable tension between the reception of supra-regionally widespread urban planning concepts and construction on the one hand and the consideration of specific local parameters on the other hand. The internal structure of the city as well as its limits were largely defined by natural conditions. The elongated city area is marked by a rugged terrain, small watercourses, and marshy zones in the plateau. The construction ends close to a deep gorge and on its northern opposite site the peri-urban sanctuary of Artemis Hemera is located. Starting at the sanctuary, a historic route appears to run along the upper edge of the settlement and it might have had an important function in the development of the individual settlement areas. In the northern city area the development of the very uneven terrain took place in small terraces that followed the natural topography and primarily appear to have provided space for residential constructions, as illustrated by two exposed Hellenistic houses. To the south, the terrain flattens off and permits the construction of expansive construction terraces which were also used for public buildings.
The Hellenistic urban center
For the area referred to as Stadio close to the karst plateau the previous research already has provided comprehensive findings on the monumental development of the Hellenistic polis with political and religious buildings as well as the diachronic dynamics in the urban development. A two-aisled stoa, a sanctuary consisting of a peripteros and a small oikos, various smaller monuments as well as other unexcavated large buildings built across several terraces stepped above each other are evidence of contemporary urbanity but also reveal strong locally influenced constructions. Against this background, the new research on the spatial and functional organization of the public center is another important key to a deeper understanding of the urban structure and development of Lousoi.
The urban development of Limyra in the Hellenistic period
ZAMG Helmut Brückner (University of Cologne, Geographisches Institut) Laurence Cavalier (Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Institut Ausonius-Maison de l'archéologie) Havva İşkan (Akdeniz Universität, Institute for Archaeology) Michael Wörrle (DAI, Commission for Ancient History and Epigraphy)
FWF project P29027 OeAW-OeAI
The project »Urban development of Limyra in the Hellenistic period« deals with the size, structure, and townscape of the east Lycian city of Limyra (Turkey) mainly from the rule of the Ptolemies to the early imperial period under consideration of the historical contexts.
The size and character of Zẽmuri/Limyra following its development into a royal seat by the dynast Perikle at the beginning of the 4th century BCE have been well studied through many years of excavations. Comparatively little is known about the urban development of Limyra in the Hellenistic period as is typical for the archaeological exploration of Lycia. The situation in other major cities of the region, such as Xanthos and Patara, is similar.
Preliminary work and initial results
Preliminary work for this project already provided first insights on the size of the city, its street grid as well as a change in the urban fabric which had been established in the Hellenistic period. In the ›west city‹ of Limyra the city wall was discovered which had been built during the rule of the Ptolemies as part of a settlement expansion. Spolia discovered in the late antique city wall verify the existence of several monumental temples of the Hellenistic period that possibly significantly shaped the townscape. The first results of the geophysical surveys have also shed new light on the development of the city and demonstrate that the uniform orientation of the development established in the Hellenistic period was at least partially abandoned as a result of an unknown event.
The fieldwork for the project is being carried out with non-invasive (geophysics, spolia project) as well as with invasive (geoarchaeology, excavations) methods. These studies are primarily pursuing the objective of gaining an overview of the general inventory of the monuments primarily in the Hellenistic period and their orientation. The geophysical corings will lead to findings on the dating of newly formed watercourses of the Limyros throughout the history of the city as well as their obvious impact on the urban development. Several precise and small scale trenches will serve as a way to document the city limits, the nature, and the dating of the Hellenistic construction as well as the collection of information regarding the abandonment of the uniform orientation, possibly in the early imperial period.
By comparing the archaeological results with those from other Lycian cities, such as Patara or Xanthos, we expect to gain considerable insights into the structural development of Limyra during the Hellenistic period, into the chronology of the urban development, and the functional use of space which will lead to a significant increase in knowledge about the building activity of this period on the south-west coast of Asia Minor as a whole.
Leontion: A short-lived polis?
Leontion was a fortified small town in the north of the Peloponnese located in the border area between Achaea and Arcadia. The architectural remains visible on the surface appear to originate largely from the early Hellenistic period suggesting a corresponding re-foundation. Since 2018, the site is being studied as part of a five-year synergasia between the Ephorate for Antiquities in Achaea (EphAch) and the OeAI (Head Office and Athens branch).
Oliver Hülden Georgia Alexopoulou (EphAch)
Georgia Alexopoulou (EphAch)
OeAW-OeAI Ephorate of Antiquities of Achaia
Location and History
In a paper in 1925 F. Bolte provided the convincing historical arguments for the localization of Leontion on the Kastritsi-hill located around 2.3 km north of the village Kato Vlasia (municipality of Kalavryta, Achaea). The town does not appear frequently in the literary sources: It first is mentioned by Polybius who by the late Classical period ranks the town among the twelve poleis of the Achaean League; furthermore, he mentions Leontion in connection with an Aetolian raid in 217 BCE and thus provides the crucial clue for its localization.
Although Leontion seems to have held the status of polis already in the pre-Hellenistic period, its expansion into a veritable small town does not appear to have taken place until the early Hellenist period possibly as a re-foundation by Antigonos II Gonatas. The massive fortification is striking and combined with the location at the crossroads of important overland routes suggests a military strategic interest in the location. This could also be the reason for the loss in importance of Leontion in the course of the Hellenistic period. By the imperial period it had become a village.
The settlement area covers the roughly L-shaped Kastritsi-hill with a size of about 4ha and is surrounded by an almost completely preserved fortification ring equipped with towers and gates. Very few ancient remains have been preserved on the rugged peak in the west. A plateau 80 x 40 m in size is located to the east below and represents the only larger flat surface within the settlement area. Here the agora might have been located; its norther edge is completely occupied by a long, multi-roomed building of hitherto unknown function and date. To the south of the agora remains of residential buildings in the form of terrace houses are discernible.
The northern part of Leontion only consists of a eastern slope which begins directly beneath the part of the fortification wall running along the small north-western ridge of the hill. It was also covered with residential terrace houses of partially considerable size that were connected by an orthogonal grid. This form of architecture ends in the northern corner of the fortification wall at a small theater partially hewn out of the rock that possibly was connected to a small shrine. The only well-preserved gate system is located to the east. It follows the type of the tangential gate and additionally exhibits several peculiarities.
As part of her dissertation on the archaeology and topography of north-western Arcadia G. Alexopoulou dealt with Leontion in detail. This assessment was based on her own research at the site in the early 2000s and thus she laid the foundations for the current synergasia approved by the Greek Ministry for Culture and Sport in spring 2018. In the course of the first three week field season in September 2018 various remains of the settlement visible on the surface were surveyed. Workmen of the ephorate had cleaned the entire fortification wall, the area of the possible agora as well as the theater of all growth for the survey, the fly over with a drone, and a 3-D laser scan of selected points.
According to the first evaluation, the fortification wall appears to have been constructed in one phase because there are no indications of a change in the routing of the terrace or substantial repairs or modifications. Since the theater and fortification walls could not have been created independently of each other, both must date to the same period. The same must be the case for the preserved terrace houses, at least on the eastern slope, because they follow the orientation of the parodoi of the theater. Overall the preserved architectural remains give the impression that they belonged to the original layout of the small town which was later only imperceptibly changed. Therefore, they represent significant evidence in support of the early Hellenistic re-foundation and rapid decline of Leontion.
In the future four seasons we will verify whether the first impression of the settlement just outlined is accurate. In addition to the verification of the postulated early Hellenistic date of the mentioned buildings, the question will be followed up whether remains of pre-Hellenistic Leontion can identified or whether this must be looked for in another location. Furthermore, the clarification of the post-Hellenistic type of settlement will be another focus. In order to answer these questions various survey methods will be employed as well as a systematic pottery survey and excavations will be carried out in suitable locations. Later the research will be extended to the countryside of Leontion in the form of a field survey which appears to have mainly included the valley of the Selinountas River between Kato Vlasia and Agios Andreas. In addition, the possible military character of the settlement will need to be studied in relation to the neighboring poleis of Achaea and Arcadia.
Cult and Sanctuary
Artemision of Ephesos
Gerhard Forstenpointner (Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien, Institut für Pathobiologie und Anatomie)
Sanctuary of Lousoi
Giorgia Alexopoulou (Ephorate of Antiquities Achaia, Patras) Anastasia Gadolou (Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, Athens, Directorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities) Evangelia Kiriatzi (British School at Athens, Fitch Laboratory) Franziska Lang (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Klassische Archäologie – FB 15) Jan Paul Crielaard (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) Xenia Charalambidou (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
FWF P 30095-G26
The aim is to research the form, functions and development of ancient sanctuaries as well as their role in social and economic life. Cult activities are to be reconstructed on the basis of artefacts, biofacts and written sources. Currently, the focus is on the Artemision of Ephesos, one of the most important sanctuaries of the ancient Mediterranean world. Not only the beginnings and early phases of the sanctuary and its cult are considered, but also the late periods and the medieval after-use are in focus. The Artemis sanctuary at Lousoi offers the opportunity to examine the range of variation in cults of the same deity. The research area is a member of »Hieron. Network for the Studies of Greek Sanctuaries | Universiteit Utrecht«.
The Artemision of Ephesos
From an urban sanctuary to supraregional importance
The Artemision was the main sanctuary of the polis of Ephesos. In the Archaic period it gained supra-regional importance. This is owed in particular to the commitment of the Lydians, whose last King Croesus was the most important benefactor of the first large marble temple (Dipteros 1). The successor building constructed in the late 4th century BCE (Dipteros 2) was considered to be one of the seven world wonders by ancient writers. After the Archaic period, the cult of Artemis Ephesia expanded throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, and from the Hellenistic period increased even more in popularity.
Contextual reappraisal of the excavation results in synopsis
The research history of the Artemision is complicated. Excavations were carried out by J. T. Wood 1869–1874, O. Benndorf/C. Humann 1895, D. G. Hogarth 1904–1905, A. Bammer 1965–1995 and S. Ladstätter 2014. Dissimilar methods, divergent designations as well as scattered publications in preliminary reports and individual studies have made the reception of the excavation results very difficult until now. The goal of the current project is to trace the ascent of the sanctuary from its modest beginnings in the ›dark centuries‹ up to the construction of the ›world wonder temple‹ by means of a synoptic evaluation of the previous results of the excavations and material studies.
Reconstruction and re-dating of the early temples
The analysis of stratigraphy and datable ceramic finds has led to a revised chronology, in contrast to the preliminary reports, for the earliest temple buildings which play a key role in early Greek architecture. Naos 1 (ca. 660/640 B.C.) is the best-preserved of the early Greek peripteral temples. Its successor, Naos 2 (ca. 640/620 B.C.), with its extensive building sacrifices and the large cult statue base of green schist ashlar blocks, for the first time permits Lydian influence to be recognised. A detailed re-evaluation of the structural evidence enables a new reconstruction of this temple.
The earliest dated coins of antiquity
It has been possible to associate three rich foundation deposits with Naos 2; two of these deposits contained many dozen electron coins. These coins count amongst the oldest in human history. Due to their well-documented find context, they provide decisive indications for the dating of the beginnings of coin minting.
From context to cult
The contextual analysis of the find assemblages has made it possible to reconstruct the cult activities and dedication practices. The bone remains are the primary evidence for the animal sacrifices. Ceramic vessels and iron implements provide insights into the subsequent communal cult banquets.
The sanctuary of Artemis Hemera in Lousoi: cult practice in the Geometric and Archaic periods
A remote sanctuary of supra-regional importance
Although situated high in the mountains, the sanctuary of Artemis Hemera in Lousoi gained supra-regional importance in the central Peloponnese already in the first half of the 7th century B.C. This is attested by later written sources that report about the leading role of the sanctuary in the founding of the Archaic apoikie of Metapontum in southern Italy. The archaeological evidence extend even further back in the Geometric epoch.
Reconstruction of the cult activities
Cult activities in the Geometric and Archaic periods should be comprehended by means of a combined functional analysis of all artefacts and biofacts. The most extensive group of objects in this regard are the ceramic vessels, with more than 2,500 diagnostic pieces. Cult vessels are represented here next to miniature vessels (Fig. 2), which have equally votive character as do the terracotta figures and jewellery of metal, bones, ivory and amber. To this group can be added animal bones, yet nevertheless in a surprisingly small quantity.
Ritual meals in the city and in the periurban sanctuary
Lousoi provides the possibility, very rare in the Geometric period, to compare ritual meals in differing social contexts. In addition to the find complex from the periurban sanctuary of Artemis, an additional one exists from the city centre of Lousoi. Their comparison allows conclusions regarding differences between sacred and profane customs in early Arcadia.
Ceramic archaeometry as an indicator of the network of the sanctuary
An additional emphasis of the project lies on archaeometric analyses of origin, using petrography, X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation. In collaboration with other archaeometric projects in the northern Peloponnese and in the region of Metapontum, it should be possible to identify local and regional products. In this manner we obtain an idea of the significance of the sanctuary of Artemis and of its position within the regional and supra-regional network in which it was integrated.
The cult profile of Artemis Hemera of Lousoi
The characteristic profile of the Artemis cult in Lousoi should be worked out via a comparison with other sanctuaries of the same goddess. In the Geometric and Archaic periods, Greek religion was strongly characterised by local and regional traits that should be identified on the basis of the archaeological evidence. These are in contrast to panhellenic elements, which increasingly gained in importance after the epic poetry of Homer and Hesiod.
With the completion of this project, the sanctuary of Artemis in Lousoi will be the only cult site of the Geometric and Archaic periods in north-western Arcadia whose archaeological evidence has been completely analysed and published. In this sense the project will represent a fundamental contribution to the archaeology and the religious- and cultural history of the Peloponnese.
The city of Ephesos from the late Bronze Age to its re-foundation by Lysimachus
Helmut Brückner (Geographisches Institut, University of Cologne)
The research project is reconstructing the early settlement history of Ephesos. Interdisciplinary research has demonstrated how the shift of the coast has changed the settlement structure. An archaic-classical residential quarter was verified through excavations as well as a new terrace in the rock shrine of Meter with in-situ finds.
The unknown Ephesos
The aim of this project is to study the location, size, structure, and chronology of the settlement in the area of Ephesos through systematic archaeological and interdisciplinary methods from the late Bronze Age to the beginning of the Hellenistic period. The ruins visible today trace back to the re-foundation through king Lysimachus at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE. At the time the city already had a history spanning millennia. Very little is known about the city’s forerunner; only very few excerpts mention it in the ancient written sources. Archaeologically the late Bronze Age, early Iron Age, archaic, and classical settlement phases are difficult to explore: the corresponding levels and building remains are often covered by several meters of alluvial deposits, are located below the water level, or were covered by later structures.
The city follows its harbor
The landscape of Ephesos was subjected to massive geomorphological changes that greatly influenced the development of the settlement. The changes of the coast line were reconstructed in its individual stages through palaeogeographic corings by H. Brückner and F. Stock (University of Cologne). The progressive silting up of their harbors forced the Ephesians several times to search for new moorings where as a result new city quarters developed.
A city of scattered quarters
Since the early 7th century BCE new settlements developed along the coast. This form of scattered settlements can often be seen among early Greek poleis. Through the systematic mapping and analysis of older research results as well as through precise trenches in selected places it was possible to reconstruct the development of the settlement from the late Bronze Age to the early Hellenistic period.
Archaic-classical settlement on the north-eastern terrace of the Panayırdağ
Parts of such a residential quarter were excavated along the north-eastern side of the Panayırdağ in 2008/2009. This naturally protected rock terrace was used from the early 7th century BCE. Around 400 BCE a fortification wall was built around the settlement and enclosed an area of about 9 ha. It is the oldest known fortification of Ephesos.
Austrian Archaeological Institute
Dpt. of Prehistory & West Asian/Northeast African Archaeology Hollandstraße 11–13, 5th floor | 1020 Vienna T + 43 1 51581-6101
Dpt. of Historical Archaeology Franz Klein-Gasse 1 | 1190 Vienna T + 43 1 51581-4000
Dpt. of Classical Studies Hollandstraße 11–13, 6th floor | 1020 Vienna T + 43 1 51581-3483
Follow us on
Sign up now for our newsletter and receive regular information about the OEAI.
Austrian Archaeological Institute Austrian Academy of Sciences Franz Klein-Gasse 1 1190 Vienna, Austria T (+43 1) 51581-4000 E oeai(at)oeaw.ac.at
In the Media
More events Subscribe to the ÖAI NEWSLETTER
Oriental and European Archaeology
de / en
The series ›Oriental and European Archaeology‹ has been founded in 2013 by the Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA) at the Austrian Academy of Sciences. This series aims to achieve a cross-regional readership and authorship from both European and Oriental archaeology as well as to consider and discuss these cultural areas as strongly related core zones of cultural development. Thus, ›Oriental and European Archaeology‹ combines prehistoric and early historical archaeology from the Orient and Europe.
The series is edited by Barbara Horejs and coordinated by the Department of Prehistory & WANA Archaeology. An international peer-review process supervised by the Austrian Academy of Sciences guarantees the scientific quality.
Untersuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des OeAI
The series ›Untersuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes‹ was founded in 1975 in order to publish the results of the research and the investigations of the newly created Cairo branch of the Austrian Archaeological Institute. Most volumes published thus far deal with the long-term Austrian excavations at the site of Tell el-Dabʿa in the Eastern Nile-Delta.
The series is edited by the Austrian Archaeological Institute (OeAI) at the Austrian Academy of Sciences and coordinated by the Department of Prehistory & WANA Archaeology. All submitted manuscripts are subject to international peer-review, supervised by the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
Ergänzungsbände zu den Tituli Asiae Minoris
Verlag der ÖAW
The series »Ergänzungsbände zu den Tituli Asiae Minoris«, edited by the research group »Epigraphy«, was founded in 1966 in order to publish the results of ancient studies in Asia Minor that cannot be directly incorporated into the corpora of the TAM series; this also includes so-called »repertories« (collections of inscriptions which do not claim to be a corpus) and collections of inscriptions according to other than geographical aspects, e.g. catalogues of inscriptions in museums.
ETAM 29 Ludwig MEIER, Kibyra in hellenistischer Zeit. Neue Staatsverträge und Ehreninschriften (Wien 2019). Verlag ETAM 28 Hasan MALAY – Georg PETZL, New Religious Texts from Lydia (Wien 2017). Verlag ETAM 27 Josef FISCHER (Hrsg.), Der Beitrag Kleinasiens zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte der griechisch-römischen Antike. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums Wien, 3.–5. November 2010 (= Archäologische Forschungen 24) (Wien 2014). Verlag ETAM 26 Jan KOSTENEC – Alexander ZÄH, Wissenschaftlicher Nachlaß der deutsch-böhmischen archäologischen Expedition nach Lykaonien, Ostpamphylien und Isaurien (Kleinasien) durchgeführt im Jahre 1902 (Wien 2011). Verlag ETAM 25 Christof SCHULER (Hrsg.), Griechische Epigraphik in Lykien. Eine Zwischenbilanz. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums München, 24.–26. Februar 2005 (Wien 2007). Verlag ETAM 24 Peter HERRMANN (†) – Hasan MALAY, New Documents from Lydia (with 103 figures and a map) (Wien 2007). Verlag ETAM 23 Hasan MALAY, Researches in Lydia, Mysia and Aiolis (with 246 figures and a map) (Wien 1999). Verlag ETAM 22 Stephan HAGEL – Kurt TOMASCHITZ, Repertorium der westkilikischen Inschriften nach den Scheden der Kleinasiatischen Kommission der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Wien 1998). Verlag ETAM 21 Kurt TOMASCHITZ, Unpublizierte Inschriften Westkilikiens aus dem Nachlaß Terence B. Mitfords (Wien 1998). Verlag ETAM 20 Martin Ferguson SMITH, The Philosophical Inscription of Diogenes of Oinoanda (Wien 1996). Verlag ETAM 19 Hasan MALAY, Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the Manisa Museum (Wien 1994). Verlag ETAM 18 Jürgen BORCHHARDT – Gerhard DOBESCH (Hrsg.), Akten des II. Internationalen Lykien-Symposions. Wien, 6.–12. Mai 1990. Band II (Wien 1993). Verlag ETAM 17 Jürgen BORCHHARDT – Gerhard DOBESCH (Hrsg.), Akten des II. Internationalen Lykien-Symposions. Wien, 6.–12. Mai 1990. Band I (Wien 1993). Verlag ETAM 16 Ruprecht ZIEGLER, Kaiser, Heer und städtisches Geld. Untersuchungen zur Münzprägung von Anazarbos und anderer ostkilikischer Städte (Wien 1993). ETAM 15 Gertrud LAMINGER-PASCHER, Die kaiserzeitlichen Inschriften Lykaoniens. Faszikel I: Der Süden (Wien 1992). Verlag ETAM 14 Gerhard DOBESCH – Georg REHRENBÖCK (Hrsg.), Die epigraphische und altertumskundliche Erforschung Kleinasiens. Hundert Jahre Kleinasiatische Kommission der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Akten des Symposiums vom 23. bis 25. Oktober 1990 (Wien 1993). Verlag ETAM 13 James RUSSELL, The Mosaic Inscriptions of Anemurium (Wien 1987). Verlag ETAM 12 Michel CHRISTOL – Thomas DREW-BEAR, Un castellum romain près d’Apamée de Phrygie (avec 30 photos et une carte). Denkschriften, Bd. 189, 1987. Verlag ETAM 11 Gertrud LAMINGER-PASCHER, Beiträge zu den griechischen Inschriften Lykaoniens (Wien 1984). Verlag ETAM 10 Elisabeth ALFÖLDI-ROSENBAUM, The Necropolis of Adrassus (Balabolu) in Rough Cilicia (Isauria). With contributions by Joyce Reynolds and Karl-Dietrich Schmidt (Wien 1980). Verlag ETAM 9 Alois MACHATSCHEK – Mario SCHWARZ, Bauforschungen in Selge. Mit einem geodätischen Beitrag von Josef Dorner (Wien 1981). Verlag ETAM 8 Werner PEEK, Griechische Versinschriften aus Kleinasien (Wien 1980). Verlag ETAM 7 Günter NEUMANN, Neufunde lykischer Inschriften seit 1901 (Wien 1979). Verlag ETAM 6 Martin Ferguson SMITH, Thirteen New Fragments of Diogenes of Oenoanda (Wien 1974). Verlag ETAM 5 Forschungen an der Nordküste Kleinasiens 1: [David ASHERI, Über die Frühgeschichte von Herakleia Pontike / Wolfram HOEPFNER, Topographische Forschungen. Mit einem Anhang von Adolphine ERICHSEN, Ein Hekate-Relief in Herakleia Pontike] (Wien 1972). Verlag ETAM 4 George Ewart BEAN, Journeys in Northern Lycia 1965–1967 (Wien 1971). Verlag ETAM 3 George Ewart BEAN – Terence Bruce MITFORD, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964–1968 (Wien 1970). Verlag ETAM 2 Alois MACHATSCHEK, Die Nekropolen und Grabmäler im Gebiet von Elaiussa Sebaste und Korykos im Rauhen Kilikien (Wien 1967). Verlag ETAM 1 Wolfram HOEPFNER, Herakleia Pontike-Ereğli. Eine baugeschichtliche Untersuchung (Wien 1966). Verlag
Sonderschriften des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes
The series »Sonderschriften des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts«, which has appeared in irregular order since 1901, is reserved for conclusive results of archaeological research in Austria and the Mediterranean region. Congress proceedings are also published in this series.
The ›Sonderschriften‹ are published by the Department of Historical Archaeology of the OeAI.
Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst
The »Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst« was founded in the 1960s by Klaus Wessel (1916–1987) and Marcell Restle (1932–2016). Subsequently, Birgitt Borkopp, Barbara Schellewald, Thomas Steppan and Lioba Theis were actively involved in the editing the final contributions. Since 2017, Andreas Pülz has been responsible for editing the volumes.
The aim of the encyclopaedia was and is to collect the rich material of the artistic legacy of the Byzantine Empire, which has been growing rapidly for decades and is widely scattered, to make it accessible to as broad a readership as possible and to enable further studies through detailed bibliographical information.
The first volume of the encyclopaedia, published with Anton Hiersemann Verlag in Stuttgart, appeared in 1966 and began with the lemma »Abendmahl« (Last Supper). In the meantime, about 280 lemmas on more than 4000 pages (c. 8300 columns) have been compiled. According to current planning, about 150 entries are still missing, which will have to be created within the coming years.
em. o. Prof. Dr. Johannes Koder (Wien) Prof. Dr. Andreas Külzer (Wien) Doz. Dr. Andreas Pülz (Wien) Prof. Dr. Sabine Schrenk (Bonn) Prof. Dr. Lioba Theis (Wien) Prof. Dr. Rainer Warland (Freiburg)
Perspectives on Balkan Archaeology
Verlag Marie Leidorf
In 2020, the publication series ›Perspectives in Balkan Archaeology‹ was jointly launched by the Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA), the Department for the Study of Culture and Ancient Studies of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) and the Institute of Classical Archaeology of the Charles University in Prague (ICAR). It focuses on prehistoric research on various topics and periods in the Balkans and is intended as a publication medium for scientific networks between Central and Southeast Europe.
The series is edited by Barbara Horejs (OeAI), Carola Metzner-Nebelsick (LMU) and Peter Pavúk (ICAR). All submitted manuscripts are subject to international peer-review, supervised by the series editors.
The series ›Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für mykenische Forschung‹ was established in 1972 with the aim of presenting research results relating to Linear B-texts as well as to contributions to Aegean prehistory in the form of monographic studies. From 1973 onwards it frequently featured the title ›Mykenische Studien‹. In 1994, its name was changed to ›Veröffentlichungen der Mykenischen Kommission‹; the now subtitle ›Mykenische Studien‹ was only used occasionally. Since 2013, the series is named ›Mykenische Studien‹ and is still dedicated to publications on Greek prehistory at the Austrian Archaeological Institute.
The series editors are Reinhard Jung and Michaela Zavadil, with copyediting by the Department of Prehistory & WANA Archaeology. An international peer review process, coordinated and supervised by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, guarantees scientific quality.
Mitteilungen der Prähistorischen Kommission
de / en
Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
The series ›Mitteilungen der Prähistorischen Kommission‹ looks back on more than 100 years of history. Founded as the official publication of the ›Prähistorische Commission der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften‹ (Prehistoric Commission of the Imperial Academy of Sciences), the new series replaced the scientific reports in ›Denkschriften‹ and „Sitzungsberichte‹ of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. The first volume (Mittheilungen der Prähistorischen Commission Heft 1/1887) was published in 1888. Since 2013, the series has been continued at the Institute for Oriental and European Archeology (OREA) and since 2021 at the Austrian Archaeological Institute.
›Mitteilungen der Prähistorischen Kommission‹ include monographic finds publications as well as the publication of scientific results from research projects investigating at all time periods from the Palaeolithic to the Early Middle Ages. As the only nationwide Austrian monograph series for prehistoric and early historical topics, the MPK is an important publication for Central European research on prehistory and early history.
The series is edited by Barbara Horejs and coordinated by the Department of Prehistory & WANA Archaeology. An international peer-review process supervised by the Austrian Academy of Sciences guarantees the scientific quality.
Forschungen in Limyra
The excavations in Limyra in the Roman province Lycia are the second major excavation project of the OeAI in Turkey after Ephesos. The OeAI took over the excavation in Limyra in 2002, but research at this site, whose finds and records range from the 8th century BC to Islamic history, has been going on since the 1960s. In future, however, the series will also present research results on other Lycian cities and findspots.
The series »Forschungen in Limyra« is published by the Department of Historical Archaeology of the OeAI.
Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Forschungen in Ephesos
Excavations by the OeAI have been taking place in Ephesos since 1895, and the first volume of »Forschungen in Ephesos« was published by the Austrian Academy of Sciences as early as 1906. In the meantime, nearly 50 monographs with comprehensive monument and material studies have been published in this series, making Ephesos one of the best-published archaeological undertakings worldwide. Since 1977, the volumes are published without exception by the Press of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, while the Department of Historical Archaeology of the OeAI is responsible for the editing of the series.
All volumes of »Forschungen in Ephesos« are now openly accessible: https://www.oeaw.ac.at/oeai/publikationen/open-access-publikationen
Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum
The ›Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum‹ is an international research project for the research and publication of ancient ceramics. It is the oldest project of the Union Académique Internationale, an international alliance of national academies in the fields of the humanities and the social sciences, founded in 1919 and based in Brussels. Since 1922, a total of more than 400 volumes have been published in this series. The publication of the volumes lies in the responsibility of each member country.
Austria joined the CVA project in 1935, for political reasons it belonged to Germany from 1938 to 1945. Therefore, the volume of the collection of the University of Vienna, which was published in 1942, is called ›Deutschland 5‹. Since 1949, Austria has again been an independent member. In 1951, the CVA was established as an own commission and was henceforth administrated by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In 1994 the commission became part of the ›Forschungsstelle Archäologie‹, which was transformed into the Institute for the Study of Ancient Culture in 2000.
Following collections are currently being worked on
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien Corinthian pottery (S. Karl) Attic black-figure pottery Amphora (C. Lang-Auinger) Attic black-figure pottery Hydra (E. Trinkl) Institute for Archaeology, University Innsbruck and Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum Geometric, Corinthian, Attic black-figure pottery, Varia (V. Gertl) Mycenaean (H. Ehlotzky) Collections of the University Vienna Collections of Greek vases (H. Schörner)
In addition to the CVA volumes Österreich the OeAI edits ›Beihefte‹ in which all scientific results and pilot studies from the field of vase research are published in different subject areas.
Volumes from Austria published so far
Österreich 8 Gertrud NACHBAUR, Innsbruck, Sammlungen der Universität Innsbruck und Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum. Band 1: Attisch rotfigurige Keramik (Wien 2020). Österreich 7 Claudia LANG-AUINGER – Stephan KARL – Bettina KRATZMÜLLER, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Band 6: Bronzezeitliche und eisenzeitliche Gefäße aus Zypern. Attisch geometrische und protoattische Gefäße (Wien 2019). Österreich 6 Maria CHRISTIDIS – Stephan KARL – Gabriele KOINER – Gerda SCHWARZ, Graz, Originalsammlung des Instituts für Archäologie der Karl-Franzens-Universität. Band 1 (Wien 2014). Österreich 5 Elisabeth TRINKL, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Band 5: Attisch rotfigurige Gefäße, weißgrundige Lekythen (Wien 2011). Österreich 4 Alfred BERNHARD-WALCHER, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Band 4: Bronzezeitliche Keramik aus Zypern (Wien 1984). Österreich 3 Fritz EICHLER, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Band 3: Rotfigurige attische Vorratsgefäße (2), Hydrien und Lutrophoren (Wien 1974). Österreich 2 Fritz EICHLER, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Band 2: Rotfigurige attische Vorratsgefäße (Wien 1959). Österreich 1 Fritz EICHLER, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Band 1: Die rotfigurigen attischen Trinkgefäße und Pyxiden (Wien 1951). Deutschland 5 Hedwig KENNER, Wien, Universität und Wien, Professor Franz v. Matsch (München 1942).
CVA Österreich Beihefte
3 C. Lang-Auinger – E. Trinkl (Hg.), Griechische Vasen als Medium für Kommunikation. Ausgewählte Aspekte. Akten des internationalen Symposions im Kunsthistorischen Museum Wien, 5.-7. Oktober 2017, CVA Österreich Beiheft 3 (Wien 2020) 2 C. Lang-Auinger – E. Trinkl (Hg.), Φυτα και ζωια. Pflanzen und Tiere auf griechischen Vasen. Akten des internationalen Symposiums an der Universität Graz, 26.–28. September 2013 (Wien 2016). Verlag 1 Elisabeth TRINKL (Hrsg.), Interdisziplinäre Dokumentations- und Visualisierungsmethoden (Wien 2013). Verlag
List of all Volumes
Archaeology of Egypt, Sudan and the Levant
Verlag der ÖAW
The series ›Archaeology of Egypt, Sudan and the Levant‹ was founded in 2019. Its main focus lies on current archaeological research in the Levant, Egypt and Sudan, with special emphasis on the multifaceted interconnections between these cultural spheres. It publishes archaeological studies that focus especially on new results from fieldwork, material, cultural and theoretical studies, as well as interdisciplinary analyses related to the focus region.
The series is edited by Bettina Bader, Julia Budka and Felix Höflmayer and coordinated by the Department of Prehistory & WANA Archaeology. Manuscripts may be submitted in English, German or French. All submitted manuscripts are subject to international peer-review, supervised by the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
As a sub-series of ›Archäologische Forschungen‹, the »Velia-Studien« are published at irregular intervals. The following volumes have been published so far: AForsch 2 = Velia-Studien 1 (1999); AForsch 8 = Velia-Studien 2 (2003); AForsch 10 = Velia-Studien 3 (2003).
AForsch 30 Vasiliki TSAMAKDA – Norbert ZIMMERMANN (Hrsg.), Privatporträt. Die Darstellung realer Personen in der spätantiken und byzantinischen Kunst (Wien 2020). Verlag AForsch 29 Tamás BEZECZKY (ed.), Amphora Research in Castrum Villa on Brijuni Island (Wien 2019). Verlag AForsch 28 Günther HÖLBL, Aegyptiaca aus Al Mina und Tarsos im Verbande des nordsyrisch-südostanatolischen Raumes (Wien 2017). Verlag AForsch 27 Hans Peter ISLER, Antike Theaterbauten. Ein Handbuch (Wien 2017). Verlag AForsch 26 Renate PILLINGER (Hrsg.), Neue Forschungen zum frühen Christentum in den Balkanländern (Wien 2015). Verlag AForsch 25 Renate PILLINGER – Alexander LIRSCH – Vanja POPOVA (Hrsg.), Corpus der spätantiken und frühchristlichen Mosaiken Bulgariens (Wien 2016). Verlag AForsch 24 Josef FISCHER (Hrsg.), Der Beitrag Kleinasiens zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte der griechisch-römischen Antike. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums Wien, 3.–5. November 2010 (= Ergänzungsbände zu den Tituli Asiae Minoris 27) (Wien 2014). Verlag AForsch 23 Norbert ZIMMERMANN (Hrsg.), Antike Malerei zwischen Lokalstil und Zeitstil. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kolloquiums der AIPMA, 13.–17. September 2010 in Ephesos (Wien 2014). Verlag AForsch 22 Claudia LANG-AUINGER, Architektonische Tonreliefs aus den Grabungen der Basilika am Staatsmarkt in Ephesos (Wien 2012). Verlag AForsch 21 Vasiliki TSAMAKDA, Die Panagia-Kirche und die Erzengelkirche in Kakodiki. Werkstattgruppen, kunst- und kulturhistorisches Analyse byzantinischer Wandmalerei des 14. Jhs. auf Kreta (Wien 2012). Verlag AForsch 20 Hava und Sali HIDRI, Die frühchristliche Basilika in Arapaj/Durrës (Albanien). Herausgegeben von Renate Pillinger (Wien 2011). Verlag AForsch 19 Eugenio RUSSO, Sulla cronologia del S. Giovanni e di altri monumenti paleocristiani di Efeso (Wien 2010). Verlag AForsch 18 Sabine LADSTÄTTER – Veronika SCHEIBELREITER (Hrsg.), Städtisches Wohnen im östlichen Mittelmeerraum 4. Jh. V. Chr. – 1. Jh. n. Chr. Akten des internationalen Kolloquiums vom 24.–27. Oktober 2007 an der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Wien 2010). Verlag AForsch 17 Rahmi Hüseyin ÜNAL – Friedrich KRINZINGER – M. ALRAM – Şule PFEIFFER-TAŞ (Hrsg.), Der Münzschatz von Beçin (= Veröffentlichungen der Numismatischen Kommission 49) (Wien 2010). Verlag AForsch 16 Şule PFEIFFER-TAŞ, Funde und Befunde aus dem Schachtbrunnen im Hamam III in Ayasuluk/Ephesos. Eine schamanistische Bestattung des 15. Jahrhunderts (Wien 2010). Verlag AForsch 15 Sabine LADSTÄTTER (Hrsg.), Neue Forschungen zur Kuretenstraße von Ephesos. Akten des Symposiums für Hilke Thür am 13. Dezember 2006 an der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Wien 2009). Verlag AForsch 14 Reinhardt HARREITHER – Philippe PERGOLA – Renate PILLINGER – Andreas PÜLZ (Hrsg.), Akten des XIV. Internationalen Kongresses für Christliche Archäologie, Wien 1999 (= Studi di Antichità Cristiana LXII, Città del Vaticano) (Wien 2007). Verlag AForsch 13 Friedrich KRINZINGER (Hrsg.), Spätantike und mittelalterliche Keramik aus Ephesos (Wien 2005). Verlag AForsch 12 Friedrich KRINZINGER (Hrsg.), Vindobona. Beiträge zu ausgewählten Keramikgattungen in ihrem topographischen Kontext (Wien 2005). Verlag AForsch 11 Karl Reinhard KRIERER, Antike Germanenbilder (Wien 2004). Verlag AForsch 10 Luigi VECCHIO, Le iscrizioni greche di Velia (= Velia Studien 3) (Wien 2003). Verlag AForsch 9 Alfred GALIK – Christian GUGL – Gerhard. SPERL, Feldkirchen in Kärnten. Ein Zentrum norischer Eisenverhüttung (Wien 2003). Verlag AForsch 8 Verena GASSNER, Materielle Kultur und kulturelle Identität in Elea in spätarchaisch-frühklassischer Zeit. Untersuchungen zur Gefäß- und Baukeramik aus der Unterstadt (Grabungen 1987–1994) (= Velia Studien 2) (Wien 2003). Verlag AForsch 7 Friedrich KRINZINGER (Hrsg.), Das Hanghaus 2 von Ephesos. Studien zu Baugeschichte und Chronologie (Wien 2002). Verlag AForsch 6 Eleni SCHINDLER KAUDELKA – Ulrike FASTNER – Michael GRUBER, Italische Terra Sigillata mit Appliken in Noricum. Mit einem Beitrag von Gerwulf Schneider (Wien 2001). Verlag AForsch 5 Petra AMANN, Die Etruskerin. Geschlechterverhältnis und Stellung der Frau im frühen Etrurien (9.–5. Jh. v. Chr.) (Wien 2000). Verlag AForsch 4 Friedrich KRINZINGER (Hrsg.), Die Ägäis und das westliche Mittelmeer. Beziehungen und Wechselwirkungen 8. bis 5. Jh. v. Chr. Akten des Symposions Wien 24.–27.3.1999 (Wien 2000). Verlag AForsch 3 Renate PILLINGER – Otto KRESTEN – Fritz KRINZINGER – Eugenio RUSSO (Hrsg.), Efeso Paleocristiana e Bizantina / Frühchristliches und byzantinisches Ephesos. Referate des vom 22. bis 24. Februar 1996 im Historischen Institut beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom durchgeführten internationalen Kongresses aus Anlaß des 100-jährigen Jubiläums der österreichischen Ausgrabungen in Ephesos (Wien 1999). Verlag AForsch 2 Fritz KRINZINGER – Giuliana TOCCO (Hrsg.), Neue Forschungen in Velia. Akten des Kongresses »La ricerca archeologica a Velia« (Rom, 1.–2. Juli 1993). Veranstaltet vom Historischen Institut beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom und von der Soprintendenza archeologica per le province di Salerno, Avellino e Benevento (= Velia Studien 1) (Wien 1999). Verlag AForsch 1 Herwig FRIESINGER – Fritz KRINZINGER (Hrsg.), 100 Jahre Österreichische Forschungen in Ephesos. Akten des Symposions – Wien 1995 (Wien 1999). Verlag
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1992
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1991
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1990
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1989
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1988
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1987
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1986
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1985
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1963/64
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1961/62
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1960
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1959
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1958
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1957
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1956
Carnuntum Jahrbuch 1955
The ›Carnuntum Jahrbuch‹ – Journal of Archaeology and the History of the Danube Basin is a scientific forum for the presentation of excavations, finds, and research reports from the Carnuntum area and its hinterland. Furthermore, the journal offers the opportunity to publish current research in the fields of archaeology and cultural history not only within Austria but of the entire Danube River area, but spanning the entire course of the river from its source, to its Black Sea estuary.
The Carnuntum Jahrbuch is published annually in the autumn of the following year. It was published from 1955–1965 and from 1985–1992 by the Department of Culture and Science of the Province of Lower Austria (now the Department of Science and Research), as well as the Friends of Carnuntum Society. Since 1993/94 the journal has been co-edited by the Austrian Academy of Sciences and is available as part of its publication program.
Since 2012, submissions to the Carnuntum Jahrbuch are subject to a peer-review procedure for the purposes of quality assurance.
Advisory Board / Editorial Committee
Since 2012, submissions to the Carnuntum Jahrbuch have been subject to a peer-review procedure (double blind review) for the purposes of quality assurance.
Advisory Board – Members
Prof. Dr. László Borhy (Budapest) Dr. Orsolya Láng (Budapest) Prof. Dr. Thomas Fischer (Köln) Prof. Dr. Peter Herz (Regensburg) Dr. Markus Peter (Bern) Dr. Karol Pieta (Nitra) Prof. Dr. Ioan Piso (Cluj-Napoca) Dr. Ivan Radman-Livaja (Zagreb) PhDr. Ján Rajtár, CSc. (Nitra) Dr. Marcus Reuter (Trier) Prof. Dr. Susanne Sievers k.M. (Frankfurt)
Univ.-Doz. Dr. Michael Alram o.Univ.-Prof. Dr. Gerhard Dobesch Dr. Christa Farka o. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dr. hc. Herwig Friesinger Mag. Franz Humer tit. a.O. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Werner Jobst Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klara Kuzmová Priv.-Doz. MMag. Dr. Andreas Pülz a.O. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Otto H. Urban
›Carnuntum Jahrbuch‹ is listed in:
Crossref ERIH ‒ European Reference Index for the Humanities (Discipline: Archaeology, Category 2007: NAT) ISSN-Register
de / en
firstname.lastname@example.org Andreas Pülz
Website Carnuntum Jahrbuch
Society of Friends of Carnuntum
Tables of Contents
Ergänzungshefte zu den Jahresheften des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes
The »Ergänzungshefte zu den Jahresheften des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes in Wien« were founded in 2001 to provide a platform for the publication of non-conclusive research results. In addition to reports on archaeological records and finds, academic theses and workshops are also included in this series.
The ›Ergänzungshefte‹ are published by the Department of Historical Archaeology of the OeAI.
Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes in Wien
ÖJh 74 (2005)
ÖJh 73 (2004)
ÖJh 72 (2003)
ÖJh 71 (2002)
ÖJh 70 (2001)
ÖJh 69 (2000)
ÖJh 81 (2012)
ÖJh 80 (2011)
ÖJh 79 (2010)
ÖJh 78 (2009)
ÖJH 77 (2008)
ÖJh 76 (2007)
ÖJh 75 (2006)
ÖJh 88 (2019)
ÖJh 87 (2018)
ÖJh 86 (2017)
ÖJh 85 (2016)
ÖJh 84 (2015)
ÖJh 83 (2014)
ÖJh 82 (2013)
de / en
Abkürzungen für Publikationen mit österreichischem Erscheinungsort
Vol. 69-78 (2001-9): Verlag der ÖAW
Vol. 79– (2010– ): Verlag Holzhausen
First published in 1898, the ›Jahreshefte‹ have long been among the leading international journals in the field of Classical Archaeology. They are published by the Department of Historical Archaeology of the OeAI.
For the ÖJh, contributions are accepted in German, English and French. All contributions submitted for printing are subjected to an anonymous, international peer review process. This does not apply to reports on excavations, prospections and surveys, which are reviewed by the editors of the journal.
Manuscripts can be submitted at any time. Depending on the duration of the respective review process and the limitation of the volume, the editors will decide whether the manuscript will be included in the next or the following volume.
Contributions to the ÖJh are to be submitted with an abstract in German or English of a maximum of 200 words and five keywords.
The ÖJh can be found at:
ERIH PLUS ISSN-Register (ISSN 2309-1207) VLB
Tables of contents of previous editions
T (+43 1) 51581-4133
Degrees in Classical Archaeology and Provincial-Roman Archaeology from the universities of Vienna and Munich. Since 2003, participant at the excavations in Ephesos (OeAI, IKAnt, FWF). From 2005 to 2015, at the Institute for the Study of Ancient Culture (OeAW) responsible for pottery studies in Ephesos, Miletus, Germia (TR), and Troemis (RO). Since 2015, scientific employee at the OeAI with the research focus pottery research in Ephesos. From 2017-2020 in charge of the RG »Keramikstudien«.
In charge of the Research Group »Object Itineraries«.
Pottery research Material Culture of the Hellenistic to Byzantine periods Archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond Cultural history and economic archaeology Socio-cultural analysis Ancient daily life culture
Ephesos: Ceramics Ephesos: Material Culture Ephesos: Graue Ware Ephesos: Hanghaus 2 in Ephesos: Die Wohneinheiten 3 und 5. Baubefund - Ausstattung - Funde Adriatic Region: Ceramic Finds Gulf region: Mediterranean ceramic imports
BERUFLICHER WERDEGANG seit 2021 Leiterin der FG »Objektitinerarien« am ÖAI 2017–2020 Leiterin der AG »Keramikstudien« am ÖAI seit 2015 Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am ÖAI 2008–2015 Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike der ÖAW; Forschungsschwerpunkte: Ephesos: Keramikforschung, Chronologie Kuretenstraße, Hanghaus 2 (Wohneinheiten 6 und 7), Theater; Troesmis (RO): Keramiksurvey; Germia (TR): Keramiksurvey; Milet (TR): Fundbearbeitung Südstadtthermen 2005–2006 Örtliche Leitung von Grabungen in der Süd- und Nordhalle der Kuretenstraße von Ephesos; wissenschaftliche Auswertung der Grabungsergebnisse 2005–2007 Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike der ÖAW: Bearbeitung der Befunde und der Fundkomplexe der Grabungen an der Kuretenstraße (Embolos) von Ephesos (FWF-Projekt P 17617) 2004 Freie Mitarbeiterin des ÖAI; Projekt Ephesos/Oberstadt: Auswertung des Fundmaterials aus dem 2003 in der Oberstadt von Ephesos durchgeführten Artefaktsurvey; Erstellung eines Typenkatalogs der Gebrauchskeramik und der Küchenware 2003 Teilnahme an einem Artefaktsurvey in der Oberstadt von Ephesos (Leitung: S. Groh, S. Ladstätter) 1997–2003 Teilnahme an archäologischen Grabungen im In- und Ausland: Ganglegg-Schluderns (I); Summuntorium-Burghöfe (D); München; Carnuntum/Bad Deutsch Altenburg (A) AUSBILDUNG/AKADEMISCHE LAUFBAHN 2009 Promotion an der Universität Wien. Dissertation »Keramische Evidenzen zur Baugeschichte des unteren Embolos von Ephesos« 2003 Sponsion an der Universität Wien. Diplomarbeit »Römerzeitliche Fundkomplexe im Brixner Becken (Südtirol): Stufels 12 - Mitterutzner, Stufels 10 B und Stufels Russo« 1997–2003 Studium der Klassischen Archäologie und einer Fächerkombination aus Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Provinzialrömischer Archäologie, Kunstgeschichte und Numismatik an der Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien und am Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichtliche und Provinzialrömische Archäologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München 2001–2003 Ergänzungsstudium Französisch an der Romanistik der Universität Wien 1996–1997 Studium der Soziologie und Kunstgeschichte an der Universität Wien ÖFFENTLICHKEITSARBEIT UND WISSENSCHAFTSKOMMUNIKATION ▪ Führungen an archäologischen Stätten, u. a. in Ephesos (Deutsch, Italienisch) ▪ Populärwissenschaftliche Vorträge zum Thema Archäologie an Gymnasien WICHTIGSTE KOOPERATIONSPARTNER (IN DEN LETZTEN 5 JAHREN) Marina Ugarković (Institut za Arheologiju/Institut für Archäologie Zagreb) JU Muzeji i galerije Budve Andreas Liebmann-Holzmann (Österreichische Botschaft Abu Dhabi) Sabah Abooud Jasim – Eisa Yousif (Archaeology Authority Sharjah) Christina G. Alexandrescu (Rumänische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bukarest)
Auswahl der letzten 5 Jahre 05.12.2018 A. Waldner, Roman finds as trade markers in the Gulf region. Sharjah (VAE), Archaeology Authority 24.09.2018 A. Waldner, The economic life at Roman Ephesos. Pottery production, consumption, interaction and trade. RCRF Cluj/Napoca, 9. 3. 2018 Cooking spaces in Ephesos. 3. Seminar des 5. Wissenschaftlichen Netzwerks "Essen in Anatolien und seinen Nachbarregionen" , DAI Istanbul 26. 2. 2016 Römische Kochsitten in Ephesos: Pompejanisch-rote Platten und ihre Derivate (16. Österreichischer Archäologentag in Wien, mit L. Peloschek) 19. 11. 2016 Die materielle Kultur des 7. Jahrhunderts in Ephesos. Die Keramik (»Urbanitas. Veränderungen von Stadtbild und urbaner Lebenswelt in der Spätantike und frühbyzantinischen Zeit. Assos im Spiegel städtischer Zentren Westkleinasiens«, 18.–20. November 2015, RGZM Mainz)
»Death in Antiquity«
ZAMG Hans Taeuber (Institute for Ancient History and Classical Studies, Papyrology and Epigraphy, University of Vienna) Norbert Zimmermann (DAI, Rome Department) Michael Richards and Megan Wong (Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University) Johannes Krause (Max-Planck-Institut for the Science of Human History Jena) Ron Pinhasi (University of Vienna, Department of Evolutionary Anthropology) Gro Bjørnstad (Division of Forensic Sciences, Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo) Kristina Scheelen-Nováček and Jan Nováček (℅ Göttingen University and Thüringisches Landesamt für Archäologische Denkmalpflege in Weimar) Helmut Brückner (Institute of Geography, University of Cologne)
OeAW-OeAI FWF-Projekt P22083
Systematic research in the necropoleis has been taking place in Ephesos since 2008. This interdisciplinary field project is intended to provide insight into the broad thematic field of ›Death in Antiquity‹ by taking all material remains into consideration.
The aim of this research is to gain a general understanding of the Ephesian mortuary landscape and to place the Ephesian findings into a broader chronological and topographical context. In addition to stratigraphical excavations, the project encompasses intensive and extensive surveys as well as the contextual analysis of finds, including related disciplines such as anthropology, archaeozoology, geoarchaeology, and geophysics. The research is taking place in close collaboration with the research group »Environment and Human Impact in Historical Societies«.
The necropoleis of Ephesos
At its core the project is focused on a virtually unexplored area of Ephesos and a research field that has considerable potential for further development particularly in Asia Minor. Since a complete excavation of the Ephesian necropoleis is impossible, the stratigraphical discovery is focused on larger connected areas that offer a representative sample of the chronology, structure, and appearance of the individual tombs and burials. The anthropological analyses are centered on questions regarding sex, age, family associations, dietary habits, and cause of death of the buried. In connection with the assessment of the furnishings, size, and structure of the burials, the funerary objects as well as the evaluation of possible epigraphic finds, the study is expected to lead to a greater understanding of the funerary customs and social structure of the Ephesians. Through the contextual analysis of the ceramic find material and the small finds from the necropoleis basic questions about the phases of use and secondary use will be clarified. The aim of the geoarchaeological research is to provide explanation models for the complex sedimentation processes as well as the varying sea and groundwater levels over the course of the centuries that necessitated the construction of the harbor channel – the prerequisite for the emergence of the West Necropolis (also: Harbor Necropolis).
The main topic »Death in Antiquity« will be documented in all its facets and without chronological restrictions. The following aspects are central to the research interests: size of the necropoleis, history of use of the necropoleis, typology of the burial architecture, appearance and quantity of non-burial related architecture in the necropoleis, development of the burial house types, structural organization of the necropoleis, diachronic differentiation of the phenomenon ›intra- and extraurban burials‹, staging of death, ritual conduct, population and social structure as well as health, life expectancy, cause of death, family cohesion, and origin.
The study of the necropoleis is clearly focused on Ephesos but from a topographic aspect goes beyond this city. The structural organization of the Ephesian funerary areas is contrasted with other necropoleis in the eastern provinces. In addition this appraisal of funerary contexts is compared with contexts from the western provinces as well as with contexts from Rome in theoretical studies.
Isotope and DNA analyses on the Ephesian population
As part of the necropolis research, strontium isotopes and DNA analyses have been taking place in Ephesos since 2011 in order to more closely examine the Ephesian population or single individuals in regards to their origin and descent.
DNA-analyses of human remains have led to significant new discoveries over the course of the last three decades: on the one hand we have gained insights into population structures, migration behavior, and colonization of uninhabited areas and on the other it has provided snapshots of daily life situations, such as the spread of diseases and social relations.
Within this context many individuals of different time periods and varying topographical association have been sampled in Ephesos. The maternal lineages have been determined through the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and illustrate a highly complex picture of the Ephesian population. These analyses are supplemented by selective DNA-analyses of the nucleus that are being conducted in cooperation with J. Krause (Max Planck Institute, Jena).
The DNA-analyses are further complemented by analyses of the stable strontium isotopes. They provide information on the geographical origin of an individual. The values of these isotopes are unique markers in the geology of a landscape and have largely remained unchanged since antiquity. When samples are taken from the teeth of a human, ideally the location can be determined where an individual grew up or where he spent the rest of his life.
In summer 2016 modern plant samples as well as snail shells were collected in Ephesos and its surroundings in order to obtain reference values for the strontium isotopes and the actual absorption through food consumption. The isotope analyses are being carried out in cooperation with M. Richards and M. Wong (Simon Fraser University, Canada). The research is also taking place in close collaboration with the bioarchaeologists at the OeAI.
Preliminary analyses of the human remains from the west necropolis demonstrate a highly complex distribution of maternal lineages within the Ephesian population. European lineages as well as those of Asian and/or African origin have been verified. This characterizes Roman Ephesos as a melting pot of people from near and far, as it were from ›all corners of the world‹.
Studies of Prehistory and Protohistory as well as Classical Archeology at the Universities of Vienna, Athens and Berlin. Graduation with “Summa cum laude” at the Freie Universität Berlin in 2005, subsequently holder of the travel grant of the German Archaeological Institute (2005/06). Awarded with the FWF START prize in 2010 as well as an ERC Starting Grant in 2011. 2011–2012 Director of the Young Curia of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW). Since 2013–2020 Director of the Institute for Oriental and European Archeology (OREA) at the ÖAW. Since 2021 Scientific Director of the Austrian Archaeological Institute at the ÖAW. 2015 awarding of an honorary professorship at the University of Tübingen in the field of Prehistory and Protohistory. Since 2015 Corresponding Member of the Division of Humanities and the Social Sciences of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and since 2016 Corresponding Member of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI). Since 2020 Member of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI). (Co-)Editor of the journal Archaeologia Austriaca as well as of the series Mitteilungen der Prähistorischen Kommission (MPK), Mykenische Studien and Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA). Head of excavations, surveys and material culture studies in Turkey, Greece and the Balkans.
Areas of Specialisation
Prehistoric archeology in Southeast Europe and West Asia Neolithic – Copper Age – Bronze Age Excavations, geoarchaeological surveys and landscape archaeology Neolithisation, intensification & centralisation Knowledge transfer, communication networks, material studies, innovation and technologies Scientific analysis and its evaluation with interdisciplinary and international teams Creation of primary data through archaeological fieldwork (excavations and surveys)
There are currently no vacancies at the OeAI.
The Austrian Archaeological Institute (OeAI) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW) is offering a
REDAKTIONSASSISTENZ/LEKTOR*IN (W*M) Position
(30 hours per week)
temporary replacement, as soon as possible
We are glad to receive your application to oeai(at)oeaw.ac.at (deadline: August 31, 2021).
30 hours per week
Ephesos: Periurban Research
The study of the environs of Ephesos is the central focus of the current research project in order to define the catchment area of the city. This applies to both the harbor landscape as well as the agricultural hinterland and the suburbs, i.e. the dense development that grew outside the city walls. Today large swaths of land are privately owned and covered with fruit plantations. As a result the subsoil can only be investigated with special permits.
Simon Keay (Universität Southampton): ERC-Projekt »PortusLimen« University of Vienna Jasmin Ableidinger (DOC-Programme)
OeAW-OeAI University of Vienna DOC-team Fellowship
Since 2008 large scale surveys, architectural documentation, geophysical and geoarchaeological prospections have been carried out. The study draws on a total of about 200 ha of geophysical surveys and 268 cores. An area of 320,000 m2 has been surveyed and the find material has been quantitatively recorded or collected. Only selective excavations were carried out in order to clarify questions regarding chronology. Simultaneously the archival material was studied in particular historical aerial photographs and illustrations as well as the evaluation of literary sources.
The Ephesian harbor landscape
The study of the harbor landscape is essential for the understanding of the city of Ephesos. Over thousands of years of extreme efforts have been made to ensure a direct access to the sea. The canal system was a technical masterpiece that connected the Roman harbor city with the coast and remained in use until late into the Byzantine period.
While the importance of a working harbor for the prosperity of the city was never questioned from the beginning of archaeological investigations in Ephesos, the systematic archaeological investigation only took place in the last several years. This circumstance was due to the complex natural conditions that necessitated an interdisciplinary research approach with the use of the most modern methods and analysis procedures.
At the center of the investigations is the organization of the harbor system of Ephesos that was developed over centuries with a succession of harbors, moorings, canals, and navigation signs. An emphasis has been placed on the structural design of the port itself, particularly the specific installations, infrastructural buildings as well as in their urban connection. Another aspect that needs to be taken into consideration is the economic importance of the city as the most important center for trade between the Mediterranean and Anatolia with a considerable amount of goods transportation that was processed in the harbor where the customs collection took place.
Along the Harbor Channel areas were surveyed that had previously been geophysically surveyed and showed densely built as well as undeveloped areas. Although the surface finds do not demonstrate any differences in terms of quantity, their composition differs. The overrepresented cooking wares and amphorae indicate domestic use in the built-up area while the material from the other areas can either be related with necropoleis or also with secondary leveling. The pottery begins in the late Hellenistic period and reaches to the 5th/6th century CE; Byzantine finds are entirely lacking.
The region to the south and southeast of the Magnesian Gate and reaching to the modern village Acarlar belongs to the suburban area of Ephesos. It is interesting to observe that -– unlike along the harbor channel – different artifact frequencies were registered. The highest density was identified immediately outside the fortification and likely represents urban waste disposal behavior. Misfired pottery provide information on the presence of pottery producing workshops in this area. The high concentration of bricks in individual fields probably originate from tombs as is confirmed by fragments of burial inscriptions. The processing of agricultural goods is evidenced by remains of presses and mills.
The suburban structures in the northwest of the city directly adjacent to the Roman harbor are geophysically particularly informative. Here a dense, multi-phase development and an irregular street grid emerges. In a research project organized as a dissertation the geophysical basic data must be evaluated and archaeologically interpreted. The analysis of the geoarchaeological results are also intended on a micro level. Based on these evaluations, a reconstruction of the city and its landscape will be attempted that will do justice to the complexity and dynamics of the settlement center of Ephesos.
Villages and villas
Very little is known of the rural settlements in the immediate vicinity of Ephesos. Villages are mentioned in inscriptions but so far not one has been excavated. Additionally, there must have been numerous villas, namely both agricultural establishments as well as luxurious country estates of wealthy Ephesian citizens. A large villa 10,000 m2 in size was discovered with ground-penetrating radar 4 km west of the city. The layout follows the type of an Eckrisalit (pavilion) villa known from the northwestern provinces and is dated through surface finds to the 2nd/3rd century CE. A second villa was documented to the south east of Ephesos.
Furthermore, stray finds testify to numerous villages in the surroundings of the city as well as the adjacent valleys. However, their exploration is still at the beginning and until now has depended on random finds.
Ephesos in Post Antiquity
Sabine Ladstätter Helmut Schwaiger
OeAW-OeAI Gesellschaft der Freunde von Ephesos (Society of the Friends of Ephesos)
Since 2011, research at Ephesos has also focussed on the transformation of the imperial-period metropolis into a Late Antique city and a mediaeval settlement. Extensive excavations in recent years in a city quarter to the south of the Church of St Mary and at the plaza of Domitian enable profound insights into the development of the city, from its centuries–long history as a political and economic centre, up to the abandonment of urban structures at the end of antiquity. The studies allow fundamental insights for the first time into the ›Dark Ages‹ of Ephesos and its material culture.
Ephesos in Late Antiquity
Towards the end of the 4th century / beginning of the 5th century AD, Ephesos established itself as a supraregional political and economic centre, and the increased prominence of the Christian religion also left its mark on the city. Thus, in the framework of a building programme which was probably centrally controlled, prominent buildings of both profane and sacred nature were erected in the lower city of Ephesos. In both a chronological as well as a spatial proximity, generously laid out private buildings arose; in the design of their groundplans they were the successors of the imperial–period Terrace Slope Houses. At the same time, plaza areas were redesigned, in part being reduced in size or being used as spolia.
Late Antique-Mediaeval City Quarter south of the Church of St Mary
Between 2011–2018, it was possible to excavate a section of the city quarter (4./5.–14. c. A.D.) to the south of the Church of St Mary. The exacavated area encompasses ca. 2,000 m², and a number of complexes, independent of each other, can be identified in the findings. A prestigious residential building can be singled out, which was furnished with decorated floors, wall paintings and marble incrustations. In addition, rooms were brought to light which were dedicated to household activities. The large dimensions of the installations in individual rooms suggest that agricultural products, such as grapes, grain and olives, were processed here at a greater scale than required by individual home requirements. In addition, it is possible to reconstruct workshops for the processing of bone. Furthermore, many thousands of coins, weighing scales and weights provide evidence of trading activities which were primarily carried out in roadside tavernae.
In the second half of the 7th century, the usage of these buildings came to a sudden end. A fire, probably caused by an earthquake, led to an extensive destruction; thereafter, many of the buildings were again put into use. It is nevertheless noteworthy that the entire destruction level was not removed – either due to lack of capability or lack of will. In part, rooms were filled with debris and walled off, while in other areas the debris was spread out within the rooms, thereby creating new floor levels. In individual areas, this was carried out to such an extent during the successive period of usage that the indoor level was gradually heightened.
Only after the 12th century do the Late Antique structures appear to have been completely abandoned; in selected areas they were also built over. While residential activities have been identified up until that time, afterwards the area seems to have been used primarily for agrarian purposes. Isolated storage buildings provide evidence of these enterprises. The final traces of human activity can be dated to the 14th century, although no architectural evidence can be associated with this. As findings from other sites in the urban area indicate, Ephesos was completely abandoned at this time.
Plaza of Domitian
The new research and excavations at the Plaza of Domitian concern questions regarding the transformation of the plaza, from the time of its erection in the late 1st century A.D. until its abandonment in Late Antiquity. Of particular significance is the expected decrease in its size, and the building up of free surfaces, already observed elsewhere, after the 5th century A.D. The course of a road that leads from the Plaza of Domitian to the north side of the Terrace Slope Houses should also be clarified.
At both excavation sites, transformation processes of urban structures, as well as the incorporation of rural settlement elements, can be observed over a long period of time. The new results of the settlement history of Ephesos are paradigmatic for other sites in Asia Minor. The precise appraisal of the material legacy enables a new view of the late phases of the city up until the establishment of a new, displaced centre – Ayasoluk, which would later become Selçuk.
Cultural variability and social organization in the early iron age
John Papadopoulos (Chair of the Archaeology Interdepartmental Program, UCLA, Los Angeles) Aleksandar Bulatović (Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade) Shafi Gashi (University of Prizren, Archaeological Institute of Kosovo, Pristina) Aleksandra Papazovska Sanev (Museum of Macedonia, Department of Archaeology, Skopje) Christophe Snoeck (Analytical, Environmental & Geo-Chemistry [AMGC], Vrije Universiteit Brussel) Bernard Weninger (Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Universität zu Köln) Mathias Mehofer (VIAS, Universität Wien)
since December 2017
FWF project P 30475
Towards the beginning of the early Iron Age several transformations in the material culture of Greece are striking. Particularly the appearance of cremation and individual inhumation burials was long held as the main argument for numerous historical reconstruction of early Greek history, however, this phase has only rarely been viewed from a cultural anthropological angle.
Some changes in Greek culture dating to the 12th and 11th centuries BCE have been traditionally perceived as evidence for an invasion of people from the north to Greece. These transformations are particularly perceptible in the burial rites of southern Greece, e.g. the change from multiple burials in champer tombs to single inhumations in cist tombs and shortly afterwards the widespread practice of cremation. This change was often identified as the legendary ›Dorian invasion‹ mentioned by some historiographers of the classical period. These tales developed into historical facts and formed the departure point for many reconstructions of the past in Greece and the Balkans.
The geographical focus
The aim of this project is not to search for Dorians in the Greek and Balkan prehistory but instead to reanalyze the archaeological data that fully addresses the already mentioned changes in an up-to-date interpretation. The area of interest comprises Serbia, Kosovo, FYR of Macedonia, and northern Greece (especially Macedonia and Chalkidike, and Thessaly). In the past scholarly debate and exchange of knowledge was difficult for political reasons but the time has come to overcome national and ideological barriers and begin an international scientific discussion.
In this project new archaeological data from recent excavations will be analyzed and presented. Recently published finds and contexts from the northern Aegean and the geographical ›hinterland‹, mainly the central Balkan, allow for comparative studies. Modern scientific methods will be used in order to define the biological sex as well as family and other kin relationships of individuals from selected necropoleis. Strontium isotope analyses aid in acquiring information about mobility and exogamy or migration of people (groups). Radiocarbon analyses, statistical, and additional historical analyses of the burial rites, individual finds, and contexts permit the reconstruction of the social organization of the local communities. Lead isotope analyses of the burial gifts made of lead will provide information on the exchange networks and trade relations.
The research is focused on the socio-cultural aspects of every necropolis and its micro-regions that function as case studies. In this way it is the foundation for a new narrative of the interregional interaction in the area of ideology and ritual. Finally, new archaeological data and modern bioarcharchaeological analyses will lead to a modernized reconstruction of the regional social relationships in Greece and the Balkan.
Historical Archaeology in the Mediterranean
Pedro Manuel Lourenço Gonçalves Helmut Schwaiger Martin Seyer Lilli Zabrana
Oliver Hülden Federica Iannone Denise Katzjäger Michael Kerschner Sabine Ladstätter
Team Jasmin Ableidinger Christoph Baier Verena Fugger Walter Gauß Stefanos Gimatzidis
The research group »Historical Archaeology in the Mediterranean« functions as a platform for inter- and transdisciplinary research approaches that deal with issues of the ancient cultural and intellectual history of the Mediterranean, including material archaeological and written sources. Committed to historical archaeology at the OeAI, sites in Greece, Italy, Turkey and the Balkans are currently at the center of research. The temporal frame includes the early Iron Age to classical antiquity and the reverberation of antiquity throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The focus of current research is placed on the study of forms, functions, and developments of urban and rural settlement areas under historical, topographic, architectural, economic, social, and ecological aspects. And by extending beyond individual settlements and landscapes and spaces will also be investigated. Under the premise of understanding ancient culture in its entirety, the research group also discusses art-historical topics as well as questions concerning cult and sanctuary. Further questions in the history of religion on the interaction of religion and ancient life culture are dealt with in the research group »Ancient Religion«.
Head Martin Steskal
Macedonian Metals: Origin, distribution and technologies
In this project, the technological background of the Bronze and Iron Age metal finds from the Republic of North Macedonia is examined using archaeological and archaeometallurgical methods. The analytical results provide the first evidence of the raw materials used and the existence of the various metallurgical networks.
Thunau am Kamp – A fortified hilltop settlement of the Urnfield Culture
Scientific Project Staff
The site on the >Schanzberg<, a ridge above Thunau, a part of Gars am Kamp, is situated in north-western Lower Austria on the eastern edge of the >Waldviertel< about 80 km northwest of Vienna. The strategically favourable situation at an important north-south route through the valley of the river Kamp was used for the founding of big settlements, especially in the Urnfield Culture (ca. 1050 ̶ 800 BC) and the early Middle Ages (8th–11th century AD). From the excavation results we can suppose that there were further but smaller settlements in the developed Hallstatt and the late La Tène Cultures as well as late Antiquity and Migration periods.
An extensive settlement with fortification existed during the late Urnfield Culture (ca. 1050 ̶ 800 BC) on a ridge above Thunau, on the so-called Holzwiese. Based on the topographical situation, the defensive structures and the size of the settlement, it can be assumed that Thunau had a central function for the surrounding region. Due to a natural steep slope towards the east, north and south, the settlement plateau is largely inaccessible and naturally protected. In the west, a fortification on the narrowest part of the ridge shelters it from the rest of the plateau.
The rampart leads up from the south-western end of the ›Holzwiese‹, starting directly at the steep edge and curving in a north-western direction. Here its base is nearly 20 m wide and its height is still more than 3 m and its northern course can be followed nearly to the valley. In the western part of the rampart was an entrance to the settlement on the transition to a buttress that connects the settlement with the plateau. A further incision about 2.5 m wide with traces of a path is discernible on the southern end of the fortification. The rampart was constructed from boxes set in a row, consisting of logs erected in blocks, being filled in with earth and covered.
Extensive excavations have shown that the whole area spanning 20 hectares had been densely settled. In the area of the south-western rampart, the houses were erected directly at the wall, partly with deep cellars cut into the rock. The houses were erected as post and beam buildings with walls of wattle and daub, partly also as log buildings. Numerous remains of fireplaces, baking ovens, storage pits, weaving looms, storage vessels and other household ceramics were recovered, partly still in their original settings, which provides insights into the households of the Late Bronze Age population.
A small cemetery was founded approximately 250 m west of the settlement, which was largely destroyed during the construction of the Slavic ramparts. Three simply furnished cremation graves were still preserved. Another cemetery was situated at the foot of the settlement at the exit of the northern lateral valley to the river Kamp. In 1983, during the construction of a new sewer, a further urn grave was discovered and destroyed. A larger cemetery contemporaneous to the settlement has not yet been found.
The Late Bronze Age settlement of Thunau ended with a fire around 800/750 BC and was evidently completely destroyed; the houses were never rebuilt.
M. Lochner, Zur Ausstattung von Hanghaus 01 der urnenfelderzeitlichen befestigten Höhensiedlung von Thunau am Kamp, Niederösterreich. In: Z Badań nad Kulturą społeczenstw Pradziejowych i Wczesnośredniowiecznych, Księga Jubileuszowa Dedykowana Profesorowi Bogusławowi Gedidze, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław 2013 (2014), 307–319. M. Lochner, Thunau am Kamp – eine befestigte Höhensiedlung der Urnenfelderkultur und der außergewöhnliche Fund eines Tonfässchens. In: W. Blajer (Red.), Peregrinationes Archaeologicae in Asia et Europa Joanni Chochorowski Dedicatae, Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, Wydawnictwo Profil-Archeo, Kraków 2012, 193–203. I. Hellerschmid, D. Kern, M. Lochner, Oberleiserberg – Stillfried – Thunau. Drei Höhensiedlungen der mitteldonauländischen Urnenfelderkultur im Vergleich. In: B. Gediga, W. Piotroski (Hrsg.), Biskupin-Wrocław 2010. Rola głównych centrów kulturowych w kształtowaniu oblicza kulturowego Europy Środkowej we wczesnych okresach epoki żelaza (Die Rolle der wichtigen Kulturzentren in der Gestaltung des Kulturbildes Mitteleuropas in den frühen Perioden der Eisenzeit), Symposium Biskupin 23.–25.06.2008. Biskupin – Wroclaw 2010, 238–297.
A cemetery of the Early Urnfield Culture from Inzersdorf
The site Inzersdorf ob der Traisen represents an extensive cremation grave field with a focus in Ha A (1300–1200 BC), yet the occupation continued until Ha B (approx. 1200–900 BC). The study of numerous vessels and bronzes from the urn graves provides an important contribution to the better understanding of the burial customs of Urnfield Culture societies in eastern Austria.
The Late Urnfield Culture cemetery of Franzhausen-Kokoron
The evaluation of the burial ground Franzhausen-Kokoron with 403 cremation graves with around 1600 individual objects deals with all essential questions about burial usage, material analysis and the population in the Late Urnfield Culture.
Between Land and Sea – The Chekka Region in Lebanon: An archaeological and paleo-environmental approach towards the potential of an eastern Mediterranean coastal region
Mario Börner Christoph Schwall
American University Beirut, Department of History and Archaeology
FWF [Project P 30581-G25]
Over millennia, the Mediterranean divided and connected the civilizations living along its shores. Exchange of sought-after products was very likely the driving force for mankind to take to seafaring along its coasts in the first place. Since early times, Lebanon provided one of these desired products, i. e. timber that grew in abundance on its mountains – tall and strong enough for the construction of temples, palaces and ships. During the 2nd millennium BC (Middle and Late Bronze Ages) trade with the Eastern Mediterranean intensified to an international level, as we know from textual and archaeological evidence from regions outside Lebanon. For a long time the excavations at Byblos were our only Lebanese source of information concerning coastal contacts with other countries such as Egypt or Crete. While in the last fifty years in other regions of the Near East new discoveries provided loads of new data and evidence for that time period, in Lebanon archaeological investigations came to a complete standstill due to the civil war (1975‒1990). Thus, there are still large areas in this country, where we have hardly any knowledge about their past. One of these areas is the coastal region of Chekka situated north of Batroun and south of Tripolis.
In a survey undertaken in summer 2016 by OREA in cooperation with Hermann Genz from the American University of Beirut (AUB) the potential of this area became evident. One of the main sites there is Tell Mirhan situated in the Chekka Bay directly on the shore of the Mediterranean. In Antiquity the tell was about 6 ha in size and thus comparable in its dimensions to Middle Bronze Age Byblos. Nowadays, the northern part of the tell has been destroyed by the constructions of a cement plant during the 1950ies and by modern houses. These destructions left a 34m long E‒W section through the tell, thus providing us with the opportunity to study the remains of a Middle Bronze Age fortification system, that once probably surrounded the whole tell. It is one of only four known in Lebanon. The material retrieved from this section showed clearly that the area was integrated into an international trading network with Egypt and Cyprus for nearly a millennium. A survey into the hinterland of the tell showed that the area was at least populated from the Chalcolithicum onwards. During this survey it became also evident that several archaeological sites have been destroyed in recent years by modern construction activities and newly planted olive groves.
The FWF project “Between Land and Sea” plans to investigate in the coming years the layout and the diachronic development of the settlement and its material culture by means of geophysical investigations and excavations on the tell. A thorough study of the fortification system shall provide new insights into the construction of these massive structures. To understand the potential of the site as a regional and supra-regional centre for production and trade various environmental studies will be conducted.
An intensive survey of the hinterland to the site shall help to understand the infrastructure, communication and trade system between the coast and the inland. We are planning to support our investigations by the means of airborne laser scanning – a technique that was never deployed in Lebanon before. In cooperation with forest engineers from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU) we like to investigate the transport ways for timber in this area from their place of lumber in the mountains till their loading onto ships in the Chekka Bay.
Cooking in times of transformation: A diachronic study of organic residues in cooking pots from Hala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus
The aim of the project is to trace changes in diet and food preparation on Cyprus at the end of the Late Bronze Age (13th–12th century BCE). The period around 1200 BCE is characterised by major political, cultural and social upheavals. Organic residue analyses of cooking vessels, indicating their original contents, will contribute to a deeper understanding of changes in dietary patterns at Hala Sultan Tekke, which may be connected to the upheavals around 1200 BCE.