Various research projects have been conducted in the past and present at the Institute for Urban and Regional Research, which cannot be dedicated to one of the current working groups. Nevertheless, these projects cover research fields that address important topics within urban and regional studies, especially settlement and urban development. Furthermore, most of these projects have in common a spatial focus towards Eastern Europe, like for example the externally funded long-time project Atlas of Eastern and Southeastern Europe (AOS) or other scientific projects funded by competitive grants.