Charles DarwinCharles Robert Darwin ( ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, widely known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. His proposition that all species of life have descended from a common ancestor is now generally accepted and considered a fundamental concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history and was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.
Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. His studies at the University of Cambridge's Christ's College from 1828 to 1831 encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on from 1831 to 1836 established Darwin as an eminent geologist, whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's concept of gradual geological change. Publication of his journal of the voyage made Darwin famous as a popular author.
Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and, in 1838, devised his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint submission of both their theories to the Linnean Society of London. Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871, he examined human evolution and sexual selection in ''The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex'', followed by ''The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals'' (1872). His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, ''The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms'' (1881), he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.
Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book ''On the Origin of Species''. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations that gave only a minor role to natural selection, and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Provided by Wikipedia
A fajok eredete : a természeti kiválás útján vagyis az előnyös válfajok fenmaradása a létérti küzdelemben / 1 / írta Charles Darwin
Superior document: A fajok eredete a természeti kiválás útján vagyis az előnyös válfajok fenmaradása a létérti küzdelemben 1
Reise um die Welt : geographische Beobachtungen. Mit einem Bilde Darwins und mehreren Abbildungen und Karten im Text / Charles Darwin ; Autorisierte Übersetzung von Dr. Julius Victor Carus, in Auswahl durchgesehen und mit Anmerkungen aus dem Leben des Verfassers sowie Anmerkungen versehen von Dr. Walter Reinhard Studienrath in Chemnitz
Superior document: Hirts deutsche Sammlung : Sachkundliche Abteilung : Länder- und Völkerkunde : Gruppe 1: Die Erforschung der Erde 2
Italienische Reise : Mit Bildern von Goethe, Kniep und Tischbein / Wolfgang Goethe ; Gekürzt und nur in ihrem geographischen Inhalt wiedergegeben, mit Angaben aus dem Leben des Dichters sowie mit Anmerkungen ausgestattet von Dr. Kurt Krause Studiendirektor in Leipzig
Superior document: Hirts deutsche Sammlung : Sachkundliche Abteilung : Länder- und Völkerkunde : Gruppe II: Das Antlitz der Erde Band 1
A fajok eredete : a természeti kiválás útján vagyis az előnyös válfajok fenmaradása a létérti küzdelemben / 2 / írta Charles Darwin
Superior document: A fajok eredete a természeti kiválás útján vagyis az előnyös válfajok fenmaradása a létérti küzdelemben 2
A naturalist's Voyage : journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle' round the world under the command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N. / by Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. author of 'origin of species,' etc.
Memorials of Charles Darwin : a collection of manuscripts portraits medals books and natural history speciments to commemorate the centenary of his birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of "The origin of species"
Superior document: Special guide / British Museum, Natural History 4
L'uomo di saccopastore e il suo ambiente : i Neandertaliani nel Lazio ; celebrazioni per il centenario della morte di Charles Darwin
Superior document: Rivista di antropologia 62, Suppl.
Darwin and the Galápagos : papers presented at a symposium celebrating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of the Origin of species..., August 14 - 15, 2009 / ed. by Michael T. Ghiselin and Alan E. Leviton
Superior document: Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 61, Suppl. 2
Contributi della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena per il 200° anniversario della nascita di Darwin / Carla Fiori ...
Superior document: Atti della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena 140, Suppl.
Superior document: Neujahrsblatt / hrsg. von der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 216 = Jg. 2014
Dokumente zur Begründung der Abstammungslehre vor 100 Jahren : 1858/59 - 1958/59 / Darwin-Wallace. Hrsg. u. eingel. von Gerhard Heberer
Curso de Conferencias en Conmemoración del Centenario de Darwin : desarrollado durante los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 1982 / Real Acad. de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales