Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019


 

Special issue on:

 

Population Ageing and Intergenerational Redistribution


Guest editors: Bernhard Hammer, Ronald Lee, Alexia Prskawetz, Miguel Sánchez-Romero

Managing editor: Maria Winkler-Dworak


Introduction

Analyzing Population Ageing and Intergenerational Redistribution: NTA and AGENTA


Research Articles


Welfare state winners and losers in ageing societies

  • Miguel Sánchez-Romero, Gemma Abío, Montserrat Botey, Alexia Prskawetz, Jože Sambt, Meritxell Solé Juvés, Guadalupe Souto, Lili Vargha, Concepció Patxot
    Full text | Details 

Intergenerational inequalities in mortality-adjusted disposable incomes


Welfare state and the age distribution of public consumption and public transfers in the EU countries

  • Agnieszka Chłoń-Domińczak, Anita Abramowska-Kmon, Irena E. Kotowska, Wojciech Łątkowski, Paweł Strzelecki
    Full text | Details 

Extending working life: experiences from Sweden, 1981–2011


Historical patterns of unpaid work in Europe: NTTA results by age and gender


Italians’ use of time during the economic crisis: implications for the gender division of labour


Transfers of informal care time in the United States: the role of demographic differentials in intergenerational flows by age, sex, and racial and national background


    Data Section


    European National (Time) Transfer Accounts

     


    Details & Abstracts


    Introduction


    Analyzing population ageing and intergenerational redistribution: NTA and AGENTA

    Ronald Lee (corresponding author), Departments of Demography and Economics, University of California, Berkeley, USA, rlee@demog.berkeley.edu
    Andrew Mason, East-West Center and University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 1-5
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s001

    cite as:
    Lee, R., Mason A. 2019. "Analyzing population ageing and intergenerational redistribution: NTA and AGENTA." Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):1-5.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    Abstract:
    This special issue of the Vienna Yearbook contains chapters derived from the EU funded AGENTA project, which uses and extends the methods of the National Transfer Accounts (NTA) project to shed light on the ways in which the families and governments of Europe draw on the earnings of the working-age population to support both children and the elderly. Before turning to the fascinating studies included in this Yearbook, we will provide some context regarding support systems, global demographic change, NTA, and AGENTA.

    pdf


    Research articles


    Welfare state winners and losers in ageing societies

    Miguel Sánchez-Romero, Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital, Vienna Institute of Demography,Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austriaand TU Wien, Institute of Statistics and Mathematical Methods in Economics, Austria
    Gemma Abío (corresponding author),
      Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d’Economia, Facultat d’Economia i Empresa, Barcelona, Spain, abio@ub.edu
    Montserrat Botey, Université d’Orléans– LIEPP Sciences Po, France,
    Alexia Prskawetz, Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital, Vienna Institute of Demography, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria and TU Wien, Institute of Statistics and Mathematical Methods in Economics, Austria,
    Jo
    že Sambt, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics, Ljubljana, Slovenia,
    Meritxell Solé Juvés, Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d’Economia, Facultat d’Economia i Empresa,
    Guadalupe Souto, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain,
    Lili Vargha, Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary

    Concepció Patxot, Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d’Economia, Facultat d’Economia i Empresa

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 9-36
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s009

    cite as:
    Sánchez-Romero, M., Abío, G., Botey, M., Prskawetz, A., Sambt, J., Juvés, M.S., Souto, G., Vargha, L., Patxot, C. 2019. "Welfare state winners and losers in ageingsocieties" Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):9-36.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    Abstract:
    In this paper, we analyse the impact of population ageing on the sustainability and the intergenerational fairness of public fiscal policy in three selected European countries (Austria, France, and Spain). We use NTA and NTTA data, and introduce these data into a large-scale general equilibrium OLG model with realistic assumptions regarding demographic trends and changes in population structure. The results for sustainability show a sharp increase in the share of public expenditure to GDP for the main programmes of the welfare state. In the three countries analysed, public policies (e.g. education, health care, and pension benefits) redistribute income from younger individuals to older individuals. Our findings indicate that these policies redistribute more resources to older individuals in Spain and fewer resources to older individuals in Austria. We consider the effects of several reform scenarios, including simulations in which the statutory retirement age is raised and the tax base for financing health care expenditures are changed. We also describe the consequences of the population having a fixed level of educational attainment.

    pdf


    Intergenerational inequalities in mortality-adjusted disposable incomes

    Hippolyte d’Albis (corresponding author), Paris School of Economics and CNRS, France, hdalbis@psemail.eu
    Ikpidi Badji,  Economix, Université Paris Nanterre, France

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 37-69
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s037

    cite as:
    d'Albis,H., Badji,I. 2019. "Intergenerational inequalities inmortality-adjusted disposable incomes." Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):37-69.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    Abstract:
    This article analyses the development of inequalities between the generations in France using a composite indicator including income and life expectancy. Mortality adjusted disposable income has greatly increased over the generations. However, a breakdown by sex shows that this increasing trend is attributable to rapid growth in women’s income, while men’s income has stagnated for all cohorts born since 1946.

    pdf


    Welfare state and the age distribution of public consumption and public transfers in the EU countries

    Agnieszka Chłoń-Domińczak (corresponding author), Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland, achlon@sgh.waw.pl
    Anita Abramowska-Kmon, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland,
    Irena E. Kotowska, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland,
    Wojciech Ł
    ątkowski, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland,
    Paweł Strzeleck, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 73-97
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s071

    cite as:
    Chłoń-Domińczak, A., Abramowska-Kmon, A., Kotowska, I.E., Łątkowski, W., Strzelecki, P. 2019. "Welfare state and the age distribution of public consumption and public transfers in the EU countries." Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):71-97.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    Abstract:
    The article extends the discussion of the welfare state in the literature by presenting a quantitative assessment of the age distribution of public resources. It investigates the differences in the distribution of public transfers between age groups in different European welfare state regimes using the National Transfer Accounts approach. There are two groups of countries that stand out in terms of the age patterns of their public transfers: three Scandinavian countries and Luxembourg have relatively high transfer levels, particularly for the older age group; while some of the Central and Eastern European countries have relatively low transfer levels. In the other European countries, the age profiles of public transfers are close to the EU average. Total public expenditures and revenues in the two distinct groups are changing in response to population ageing: i.e. they are expanding in the Scandinavian countries, and they are contracting in the CEE countries. These developments may lead to the further divergence of these welfare regimes.

    pdf


    Extending working life: experiences from Sweden, 1981–2011

    Haodong Qi (corresponding author), Malmö University, Sweden and Stockholm University Demography Unit, Sweden, haodong.qi@sociology.su.se
    Kirk Scott, Centre for Economic Demography, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Sweden
    Tommy Bengtsson,  Centre for Economic Demography, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Sweden and IZA Fellow

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 99-120
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s099

    cite as:
    Qi, H., Scott, K., Bengtsson, T. 2019. "Extending working life: experiences from Sweden, 1981–2011" Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):99-120.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    Abstract:
    Population ageing is making it increasingly diffcult for countries to sustain their current levels social welfare transfers from the economically active population to the dependent elderly. To meet this challenge, the Swedish government has implemented various reforms since the 1990s aimed at reducing incentives to take early retirement. However, a critical question has emerged in response to these reforms: namely, whether members of certain socially and demographically disadvantaged groups will, in practice, be able to work longer. This paper provides a detailed overview of retirement trends in Sweden, disaggregated by educational attainment, health status, and country of birth. Our results show that the growth pattern in the average effective retirement age since the mid-1990s was shared by individuals regardless of their educational level, health status, or country of birth. This shared growth pattern suggests that it is possible to extend the working lives of all groups of individuals, regardless of their socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

    pdf


    Historical patterns of unpaid work in Europe: NTTA results by age and gender

    Ana Šeme, Formerly, University of Ljubljana, School of Economics and Business, Slovenia
    Lili Vargha, Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary and Doctoral School of Demography and Sociology, University of Pécs, Hungary
    Tanja Istenič,
    University of Ljubljana, School of Economics and Business, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Jože Sambt (corresponding author) University of Ljubljana, School of Economics and Business, Slovenia, joze.sambt@ef.uni-lj.s

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 99-120
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s121

    cite as:
    Šeme,A., Vargha, L., Istenič, T., Sambt, J. 2019. "Historical patterns of unpaid work in Europe: NTTA results by age and gender." Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):121-140.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    Abstract:
    This paper presents an analysis of the age patterns of production, consumption, and net transfers in the form of unpaid work by gender over time. Using the National Time Transfer Accounts (NTTA) methodology, we briefly analyse complete historical results for several European countries. Our main aim is to introduce historical NTTA results, which are freely available to the public for further usage on the AGENTA database. The results of our analysis show that the evolution of age patterns over time differed between men and women, and was highly affected by different demographic trends, as well as by the specific institutional background of each country. Our findings indicate that despite the differences in age patterns over time and across countries, two main characteristics of these patterns did not change: i.e. transfers of unpaid work flowed first from women to men, and second from the working-age population to children and – to a lesser extent – to the elderly.

    pdf


    Italians’ use of time during the economic crisis: implications for the gender division of labour

    Marina Zannella (corresponding author), Department of Methods and Models for Economics, Territory and Finance, Sapienza University of Rome,  Italy, marina.zannella@uniroma1.it
    Alessandra De Rose, Department of Methods and Models for Economics, Territory and Finance, Sapienza University of Rome

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 141-162
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s141

    cite as:
    Zanella, M., De Rose, A., Šeme,A., Vargha, L., Istenič, T., Sambt, J. 2019. "Italians’ use of time during the economic crisis: implications for the gender division of labour." Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):141-162.

    first online: 10.9.2019

    Abstract:
    This article builds on time use micro-data for Italy to analyse the evolution of individuals’ time allocation during the 2002–2014 period, with a gender-specific focus. We are particularly interested in comparing changes that occurred between the years prior to and after the onset of the recent economic crisis. We use regression analysis to measure differences between years in the average use of time of men and women for personal care, education, paid work, unpaid work, and leisure over the considered period(s). In order to gain more insight into gender differences in time use behaviours, we further break down unpaid work and free time into detailed activities. We document a decrease of about two hours per week in female housework coupled with a similar increase in male unpaid work over the entire period. However, while signs of this gender convergence were already evident for women in the years before the recession, we do not find any significant change in male unpaid work between 2002 and 2008. It was only after the onset of the economic crisis, and the consequent losses in paid work hours, that men started spending more time on housework and family care.

    pdf


    Transfers of informal care time in the United States: the role of demographic differentials in intergenerational flows by age, sex, and racial and national background

    Denys Dukhovnov (corresponding author), Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley, USA, denysdukhovnov@berkeley.edu
    Emilio Zagheni, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 163,197
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s163

    cite as:
    Dukhovnov, D., Zagheni, E. 2019. "Transfers of informal care time in the United States: the role of demographic differentials inintergenerational flows by age, sex, and racial andnational background." Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):163-197.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    Abstract:
    Recent work based on the American Time Use Survey (2011–2013) provided estimates matrices of “who provides care to whom” by age and sex within care activities in the U.S. In this paper, we build on that line of research by evaluating the strength of race, ethnicity, and national origin as proxy indicators of cultural propensities to engage in informal care. Our results point to several key differences and similarities between groups based on their characteristics. For example, we find that compared to other groups, native-born African American men exhibit the lowest child care participation and transfer rates, whereas foreign-born Hispanics of any race have significantly higher rates of daily participation in child care. Moreover, we find that the propensity to provide adult care is largely dependent on socio-economic characteristics and household structure. However, our models indicate that neither race/ethnicity nor nativity are strong predictors of the observed differences when household composition and socio-economic factors are taken into account. Thus, we believe that more complex cultural factors are at play. As an illustrative example of the consequences of demographic change, we introduce the care support ratio (CSR), which is a measure of macro-level dependency for non-market transfers. The application of the CSR indicates that future informal care time deficits may result from the growing care needs of the ageing population.

    pdf


    Data section:


    European National (Time) Transfer Accounts

    Tanja Istenič,University of Ljubljana, School of Economics and Business, Slovenia
    Bernhard Hammer, Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital, Vienna Institute of Demography, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Alexia Prskawetz (corresponding author),  Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital, Vienna Institute of Demography,Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria and TU Wien, Austria, afp@econ.tuwien.ac.at

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 17, 2019, pages 201-221
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    doi: 10.1553/populationyearbook2019s201

    cite as:
    Istenič, T., Hammer, B., Prskawetz, A.  2019. "European National (Time) Transfer Accounts." Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2019 (Volume 17):201-221.

    first online: 03.12.2019

    pdf