Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2014


© - VID
© - VID

 

Special issue on:

Health, education and retirement over the prolonged life cycle


Guest editors: Michael Kuhn, Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz and Uwe Sunde

Managing Editor: Bilal Barakat


Table of contents


Introduction


Health, education and retirement over the prolonged life cycle: a selective survey of recent research


Refereed Articles


What can reverse causation tell us about demographic differences in the social network and social support determinants of self rated health in later life?


The effect of retirement on self-reported health: a gender comparison in Italy


Real wages and labor supply in a quasi life-cycle framework: a macro compression by Swedish National Transfer Accounts (1985-2003)


Working after age 50 in Spain. Is the trend towards early retirement reversing?


Retirement and leisure: a longitudinal study using Swedish data


More with less: the almost ideal pension systems (AIPSs)


How large are the effects of population aging on economic inequality?


Details & Abstracts


Health, education and retirement over the prolonged life cycle: a selective survey of recent research


Michael Kuhn, Wittgenstein Centre (IIASA,VID/ÖAW, WU), Vienna Institute of Demography of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria    
Alexia Prskawetz, Institute of Statistics and Mathematical Methods in Economics, TU Wien and Wittgenstein Centre (IIASA, VID/ÖAW, WU), Vienna Institute of Demography of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria
Uwe Sunde, Seminar for Population Economics, University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
Volume: 12, 2014, pages 1-22
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s1

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What can reverse causation tell us about demographic differences in the social network and social support determinants of self rated health in later life?


Heather Booth, Associate Professor, Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute,   
Pilar Rioseco, Research Assistant, Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute, Australian National University, Australia
Heather Crawford, Research Assistang, Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute, Australian National University Australia

Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
Volume: 12, 2014, pages 23-51
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s23

Abstract:

Few studies of the association between social networks (SN), social support (SS), and self-rated health (SRH) address the role of demography in determining that association. Yet demography defines social-structural context, differentiates family from friend networks, and influences network structures. This study examines the SN-SRH association through cross-cutting analyses of four demographically defined groups (Males, Females, Partnered, Unpartnered) and three networks (Family, Friend, Group). By distinguishing between ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ samples, the underlying causal mechanisms are explored. The positive causal effect of SN on SRH is almost entirely confined to the healthy. In this sample, Friend SN is operational among Females and the Partnered, and Group SN is operational amongMales. In the unhealthy sample, reverse causation accounts for all but a weak positive effect of Group SN on the SRH of the Partnered, while worse SRH among Females has the causal effect of greater emotional SS through confiding in friends. Among the Unpartnered, only the effect of SRH on confiding in family members is significant. The findings call into question the validity of studies which assume only positive causation, and underline the importance of demographic differentiation of both population and networks for understanding the SN-SRH association.

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The effect of retirement on self-reported health: a gender comparison in Italy


Lucia Coppola, Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), Rome, Italy
Daniele Spizzichino, Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)   

Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
Volume: 12, 2014, pages 53 - 82
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s53

Abstract:

The effect of retirement on health has been widely investigated in the literature, but the evidence on this issue is conflicting, and the debate surrounding it still open. This topic is of particular interest when expenditures for pensions and health care systems, and their potential interrelationship, are primary concerns for policy makers. This is the case in ageing countries like Italy, where the recent pension reform, which included an increase in the minimum pension age, makes gaining an understanding of the potential consequences of retirement postponement for health even more relevant. Using EU-SILC longitudinal data, we investigate the effect of retirement on self-reported health in Italy from a gender perspective. We apply logistic regressions and propensity score matching to estimate the net effect of retirement on health after potential endogeneity is controlled for. The main results show that the self-reported health of men worsens shortly after retirement, while the self-reported health of women does not change.

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    Real wages and labor supply in a quasi life-cycle framework: a macro compression by Swedish National Transfer Accounts (1985-2003)


    Haodong Qi, Centre for Economic Demography, Knut Wicksell Centre for Financial Studies, Department of Economic History, Lund University   

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 12, 2014, pages 83 - 114
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s83

    Abstract:

    This paper examines the life-cycle dynamics of real wages and labor supply in Sweden. The descriptive results lend support to the inter-temporal substitution hypothesis (ISH), as the age patterns of real wages and the labor supply are both hump-shaped. However, the age-wage profiles increasingly shift toward older ages over time, whereas the age-employment profiles do not. This leads to an accentuated difference-in-differences of the two variables from prime working age through retirement, which casts doubt on the explanatory power of the ISH for the lifecycle labor supply. Econometric analysis shows that the intra-temporal elasticity outweighs the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution, and thus provides little support for the ISH. The estimated labor supply elasticity also varies considerably across age groups. This suggests that an array of age-specific parameters are needed in calibrating the overlapping generation model (OLG).

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    Working after age 50 in Spain. Is the trend towards early retirement reversing?


    Madelin Gómez-León, ESRC Centre for Population Change     
    Pau Miret-Gamundi, Senior Researcher, Centre for Demographic Studies, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 12, 2014, pages 115 - 140
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s115

    Abstract

    As the baby boom cohort approaches retirement, there has been considerable uncertainty about the economic sustainability of the social security systems in most of the developed world. In recent decades, Spain has had both one of the oldest populations and the lowest levels of employment among the population aged 50 and over in Europe. This article addresses these issues by investigating the relationship between ageing and labour participation in the adult population. We examine the changes in employment exit patterns among men and women between 1999 and 2012, and the factors which influence early retirement, using the Spanish Labour Force Survey (panel dataset).We found clear gender effects in retirement behaviour in terms of the shares of the population who were not working and the predictors of early retirement. The partner is shown to be more relevant in the retirement timing decisions of men, while dependents are found to be more relevant in the decisions of women. Moreover, the likelihood of exiting the labour market early appears to be decreasing among women, and increasing among men.

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    Retirement and leisure: a longitudinal study using Swedish data


    Linda Kridahl, Demography Unit, Department of Sociology, Stockholm University    

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 12, 2014, pages 141 - 168
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s141

    Abstract

    This study explores engagement in leisure activities in relation to retirement among individuals aged 58–75 using Swedish longitudinal data over the 1981–2010 period. Our focus is on the relationship between leisure engagement before retirement and retirement timing, as well as on the relationship between leisure engagement before and after retirement. Engagement in leisure is measured through participation in several leisure activities which are popular in Sweden. The results indicate that leisure engagement is not associated with retirement timing when period is considered in the models. It is noteworthy that when the effect of period is excluded, but central predictors of retirement timing are included, leisure engagement is shown to be statistically significant. The results also indicate that leisure engagement patterns in retirement tend to be a continuation of preretirement leisure engagement patterns. The policy implications of these results for active ageing and health are discussed..

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    More with less: the almost ideal pension systems (AIPSs)


    Gustavo De Santis, DiSIA - Department of Statistics, Informatics, Application    

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 12, 2014, pages 169 - 192
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s169

    Abstract

    After exploring the rationale of pension systems, I outline the essential characteristics of ‘almost ideal pension systems’ (AIPSs), an improved version of the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) model. Depending on the policy choices, to be expressed in relative terms with parameters that range between zero and one, several—and possibly very different—forms of AIPSs can take shape: e.g. with high or low pension benefits, or with early or late retirement. (Almost) independent of the version chosen, AIPSs compare favourably in theory and in simulations to all other PAYG pension systems: for example, AIPSs are found to be superior in terms of their ability to ensure a balanced budget, intergenerational equity, resilience in the face of virtually all possible demographic and economic changes, and constancy at the preferred level for the relative economic well-being of the three basic age groups (young people, adults, and seniors). In addition, AIPSs are able to reduce, and even partly redress, the normally perverse redistributive effects that derive from heterogeneity in survival rates between subpopulation groups.

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    How large are the effects of population aging on economic inequality?


    Joshua R. Goldstein, University of California    

    Ronald D. Lee, University of California
    rlee(at)demog.berkeley.edu

    Journal: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research
    Volume: 12, 2014, pages 193 - 209
    Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2014s193

    Abstract

    The attention given to Piketty (2014) has renewed interest in the level and causes of inequality. In this paper, we look at the role that population aging plays in increasing economic inequality. We provide estimates of the magnitudes of the effects on inequality of three different factors related to population aging: capital intensification, changing population age structure, and increasing longevity. Changing age structure is found to have a small effect on aggregate inequality, while capital deepening and longevity-based life cycle savings are shown to be more important. Taken together, our findings suggest that aging has a substantial effect on economic inequality.

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