All the pictures are from the Archive of the Centro Scavi e Ricerche Archeologiche in Asia (IsIAO). The permission for publication has been kindly granted by Dr. Luca M. Olivieri, Director of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Pakistan.

Digital elaboration by Claudia Primangeli.

In the section ‘Buddhist sacred areas’, the pictures 4 and 10 have been elaborated by Piero Spagnesi; the pictures 8 and 13 are by Edoardo Loliva of the Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e Restauro (ISCR).