USMS - Ultrastrong Materials


Project Leader: Reinhard Pippan

Background


The theoretical strength of metals and ceramics is about 10% of their Young’s modulus. Although whiskers reach strength values close to this limit but they cannot be used in the design of load bearing structures. Currently the typical strength of the structural materials in use is only in the range of few % of this theoretical limit. Premature plastic deformation and failure due to flaws are the main reasons for this distinctive lower limit. For engineering applications, adequate fracture toughness is required which permits a ductile behaviour and certain strength even in the presence of flaws or cracks. The strength of the strongest metallic materials is only 10 % of the theoretical limit. Increasing the strength of metallic high strength materials by a few percent is usually associated with an unacceptable decrease in fracture toughness and results in a very flaw sensitive strength similar to that known for ceramics. In pearlitic steel wires it was possible to overcome this 10% limitation significantly. In the last years for the first time a strength of 6.3 GPa was obtained for this material which is about 30% of the theoretical limit or 3 times stronger than other high strength steels. The group of the PI has shown that these wires have an exceptional toughness equivalent to a high damage tolerance. The proposed ERC-grant should permit the analysis of the phenomena for this superior combination of strength and ductility. The knowledge of the essential required architectural features of this nano-composite and the necessary properties of the individual phases as well as their interfaces will be used to design nano-architectures also in other materials to obtain such exceptional properties. The developed skill in the generation of nano-composites from coarse constituents will be used for the production of similar nano-composites, the proof of developed concepts, and the generation of new ultra strong materials.

Publications

PhD-theses

  1. Deformation-induced supersaturation of immiscible binary systems. Kormout, K.(2016) Doktorarbeit (link to pdf)
  2. Recovery phenomena in severely deformed metals. Renk, O.(2015) Doktorarbeit(link to pdf)
  3. Fatigue crack growth of noncrystalline and ultrafine-grained metals processed by severe plastic deformation. Leitner, T.(2017) Doktorarbeit (link to pdf)
  4. Structural Instabilities in Nanostructured Metals. Kapp, M.(2017) Doktorarbeit (link to pdf)
  5. Processing - Structure - Property Relationships in Selected Iron-Based Nanostructures". Müller, T.(2018) Doktorarbeit (link to pdf)
  6. Production and characterization of particle-stabilized nanocrystalline Cu for high temperature applications. Krämer, L.(2014) Doktorarbeit (link to pdf)


2018

Leitner, T.; Sackl, S.; Voelker, B.; Riedl, H.; Clemens, H.; Pippan, R; Hohenwarter, A; Crack path identification in a nanostructured pearlitic steel using atom probe tomography

SCRIPTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 142   Pages: 66-69   Published: JAN 1 2018

 

Tian, Y. Z.; Gao, S.; Zhao, L. J.; Lu, S; Pippan, R; Zhang, ZF; Tsuji, N; Remarkable transitions of yield behavior and Luders deformation in pure Cu by changing grain sizes

SCRIPTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 142   Pages: 88-91   Published: JAN 1 2018

 

Mueller, Timo; Grimwood, Joseph; Bachmaier, Andrea; Schoeber, Thomas; Pippan, Reinhard;

Electrodeposition of Fe-C Alloys from Citrate Baths: Structure, Mechanical Properties, and Thermal Stability

METALS  Volume: 8   Issue: 5     Article Number: 363   Published: MAY 2018

 

Dimic, Ivana; Cvijovic-Alagic, Ivana; Hohenwarter, Anton; Pippan, Reinhard; Kojic, Vesna; Bajat, Jelena; Rakin, M.;

Electrochemical and biocompatibility examinations of high-pressure torsion processed titanium and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy

JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART B-APPLIED BIOMATERIALS  Volume: 106   Issue: 3   Pages: 1097-1107   Published: APR 2018

 

Guo, Jinming; Haberfehlner, Georg; Rosalie, Julian; Li, Lei; Duarte, Maria Jazmin; Kothleitner, Gerald; Dehm, Gerhard; He, Yunbin; Pippan, Reinhard; Zhang, Zaoli; In situ atomic-scale observation of oxidation and decomposition processes in nanocrystalline alloys

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS  Volume: 9     Article Number: 946   Published: MAR 5 2018

 

Kraemer, Lisa; Champion, Yannick; Kormout, Karoline S.; Maier-Kiener, Verena ; Pippan, Reinhard

Bulk metallic dual phase glasses by severe plastic deformation

INTERMETALLICS  Volume: 94   Pages: 172-178   Published: MAR 2018

 

Mueller, Timo; Bachmaier, Andrea; Konetschnik, Ruth; et al.; Mechanical properties of electrodeposited amorphous/crystalline multilayer structures in the Fe-P system

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING  Volume: 715   Pages: 83-91   Published: FEB 7 2018

 

Leitner, T.; Trummer, G.; Hohenwarter, A,; Pippan, R.; Influence of severe plastic deformation and specimen orientation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of a pearlitic steel

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING  Volume: 710   Pages: 260-270   Published: JAN 5 2018

 

Kraemer, Lisa; Maier-Kiener, Verena; Champion, Yannick; Sarac, Baran; Pippan, Reinhard;

Activation volume and energy of bulk metallic glasses determined by nanoindentation

MATERIALS & DESIGN   Volume: 155   Pages: 116-124   Published: OCT 5 2018

 

Renk, O.; Pippan, R.

Transition from thermally assisted to mechanically driven boundary migration and related apparent activation energies

SCRIPTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 154   Pages: 212-215   Published: SEP 2018

 

Kormout, K. S.; Ghosh, P.; Bachmaier, A.; Hohenwarter, A; Pippan, R;

Effect of processing temperature on the microstructural characteristics of Cu-Ag nanocomposites: From supersaturation to complete phase decomposition

ACTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 154   Pages: 33-44   Published: AUG 1 2018

 

Hohenwarter, Anton; Pippan, Reinhard

Introduction of Planar High Pressure Torsion (P-HPT) for Fabrication of Nanostructured Sheets

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS   Volume: 20   Issue: 7     Article Number: 1800050   Published: JUL 2018

2017

Kapp, Marlene Walpurga; Renk, Oliver; Leitner, Thomas; Pippan, Reinhard; Cyclically induced grain growth within shear bands investigated in UFG Ni by cyclic high pressure torsion

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH   Volume: 32   Issue: 23   Pages: 4317-4326   Published: DEC 14 2017

 

 Bachmaier, A.; Krenn, H.; Knoll, P.; Pippan, R.; JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS   Volume: 725   Pages: 744-749   Published: NOV 25 2017

 

Zhang, Zaoli; Guo, Jinming; Dehm, Gerhard; Pippan, Reinhard;

In-situ tracking the structural and chemical evolution of nanostructured CuCr alloys

ACTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 138   Pages: 42-51   Published: OCT 1 2017

 

Leitner, Thomas; Pillmeier, Simon; Kormout, Karoline S., Hohenwarter A., Pippan R.; Simultaneous enhancement of strength and fatigue crack growth behavior of nanocrystalline steels by annealing

SCRIPTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 139   Pages: 39-43   Published: OCT 2017

 

Schwarz, K. T.; Kormout, K. S.; Hohenwarter, A. Pippan, R.;

Impact of severe plastic deformation on microstructure and fracture toughness evolution of a duplex-steel

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING   Volume: 703   Pages: 173-179   Published: AUG 4 2017

 

Renk, O.; Ghosh, P.; Pippan, R., Generation of extreme grain aspect ratios in severely deformed tantalum at elevated temperatures

SCRIPTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 137   Pages: 60-63   Published: AUG 2017

 

Rosalie, Julian M.; Guo, Jinming; Pippan, Reinhard; et al.; On nanostructured molybdenum-copper composites produced by high-pressure torsion

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE   Volume: 52   Issue: 16   Pages: 9872-9883   Published: AUG 2017

 

Kraemer, Lisa; Champion, Yannick; Pippan, Reinhard;  From powders to bulk metallic glass composites

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Volume: 7     Article Number: 6651   Published: JUL 27 2017

 

Leitner, Thomas; Sabirov, I., Echat; Pippan, Reinhard; et al.; The effect of severe grain refinement on the damage tolerance of a superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy

JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS   Volume: 71   Pages: 337-348   Published: JUL 2017

 

Guo, Jinming; Rosalie, Julian M.; Pippan, Reinhard; et al.; MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING   Volume: 695   Pages: 350-359   Published: MAY 17 2017

 

Guo, Jinming; Rosalie, Julian; Pippan, Reinhard; et al.; On the phase evolution and dissolution process in Cu-Cr alloys deformed by high pressure torsion

SCRIPTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 133   Pages: 41-44   Published: MAY 2017

 

Kormout, Karoline Sophie; Pippan, Reinhard; Bachmaier, Andrea; Deformation-Induced Supersaturation in Immiscible Material Systems during High-Pressure Torsion

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS   Volume: 19   Issue: 4   Special Issue: SI     Article Number: UNSP 1600675   Published: APR 2017

 

Pippan, R.; Hohenwarter, A.; Fatigue crack closure: a review of the physical phenomena

FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS & STRUCTURES   Volume: 40   Issue: 4   Pages: 471-495   Published: APR 2017

 

Leitner, Thomas; Hohenwarter, Anton; Ochensberger, Walter; et al.; Fatigue crack growth anisotropy in ultrafine-grained iron

ACTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 126   Pages: 154-165   Published: MAR 2017

 

Kormout, K. S.; Ghosh, P.; Maier-Kiener, V.; et al.; Deformation mechanisms during severe plastic deformation of a Cu-Ag composite. JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS   Volume: 695   Pages: 2285-2294   Published: FEB 25 2017

 

Kapp, M. W.; Kremmer, T.; Motz, C.; et al.; Structural instabilities during cyclic loading of ultrafine-grained copper studied with micro bending experiments. ACTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 125   Pages: 351-358   Published: FEB 15 2017

 

Ghosh, P.; Renk, O.; Pippan, R.; Microtexture analysis of restoration mechanisms during high pressure torsion of pure nickel

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING   Volume: 684   Pages: 101-109   Published: JAN 27 2017

 

Ghosh, P.; Kormout, K. S.; Pippan, R., Role of interfaces on microstructure refinement and mechanical properties of severe plastically deformed copper and copper-silver eutectic

Book Group Author(s): IOP

Conference: 38th Riso International Symposium on Materials Science Location: Riso, DENMARK Date: SEP 04-08, 2017

38TH RISO INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MATERIALS SCIENCE   Book Series: IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering   Volume: 219     Article Number: UNSP 012021   Published: 2017

 

Hohenwarter, A.; Kapp, M. W.; Voelker, B.; Pippan, R..; Strength and ductility of heavily deformed pearlitic microstructures

Book Group Author(s): IOP

Conference: 38th Riso International Symposium on Materials Science Location: Riso, DENMARK Date: SEP 04-08, 2017

38TH RISO INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MATERIALS SCIENCE   Book Series: IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering   Volume: 219     Article Number: UNSP 012003   Published: 2017

 

Renk, O.; Ghosh, P.; Pippan, R.; From an understanding of structural restoration mechanisms towards a selective processing of extreme nanolamellar structures

Book Group Author(s): IOP

Conference: 38th Riso International Symposium on Materials Science Location: Riso, DENMARK Date: SEP 04-08, 2017

38TH RISO INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MATERIALS SCIENCE   Book Series: IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering   Volume: 219     Article Number: UNSP 012037   Published: 2017

 

Katzenstenier, Andreas; Aristizabal, Katherine; Suzrez, Sebastian; Pippan, Reinhard, Andrea Bachmaier; Temperature dependent structural evolution in nickel/carbon nanotube composites processed by high-pressure torsion

Edited by: Liao, X; Estrin, Y

Conference: 7th International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation Location: Sydney, AUSTRALIA Date: JUL 02-07, 2017

7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NANOMATERIALS BY SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION   Book Series: IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering   Volume: 194     Article Number: UNSP 012019   Published: 2017

 

Kormout, K. S.; Ghosh, P.; Maier-Kiener, V.; Pippan, R; Deformation mechanisms during severe plastic deformation of a Cu-Ag composite.

JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS   Volume: 695   Pages: 2285-2294   Published: FEB 25 2017

2016

Mueller, Timo; Bachmaier, Andrea; Neubaue, Erich; Kitzmantel, Michael; Pippan, Reinhard;

Strong and Stable Nanocomposites Prepared by High-Pressure Torsion of Cu-Coated Fe Powders

METALS   Volume: 6   Issue: 10     Article Number: 228   Published: OCT 2016

 

Hohenwarter, A.; Voelker, B.; Kapp, M. W.; Li, Y; Goto, S; Raabe, D; Pippan, R;

Ultra-strong and damage tolerant metallic bulk materials: A lesson from nanostructured pearlitic steel wires

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Volume: 6     Article Number: 33228   Published: SEP 14 2016

 

Kotzurek, Jaromir A.; Steyskal, Eva-Maria; Oberdorfer, Bernd; Hohenwarter, Anton; Pippan, Reinhard; Sprengel, Wolfgang; Wuerschum, Roland;

Direct measurement of vacancy relaxation by dilatometry

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS   Volume: 109   Issue: 2     Article Number: 021906   Published: JUL 11 2016

 

Edalati, Kaveh; Lee, Dong Jun; Nagaoka, Takashi; Arita, Makoto; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Horita, Zenji; Pippan, Reinhard;

Real Hydrostatic Pressure in High-Pressure Torsion Measured by Bismuth Phase Transformations and FEM Simulations

MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS   Volume: 57   Issue: 4   Pages: 533-538   Published: APR 2016

 

Kapp, M. W.; Hohenwarter, A.; Wurster, S.; Yang, B; Pippan, R.;

Anisotropic deformation characteristics of an ultrafine- and nanolamellar pearlitic steel

ACTA MATERIALIA   Volume: 106   Pages: 239-248   Published: MAR 2016

 

Pippan, R.; Hohenwarter, A., The importance of fracture toughness in ultrafine and nanocrystalline bulk materials.

MATERIALS RESEARCH LETTERS   Volume: 4   Issue: 3   Pages: 127-136   Published: 2016

2015

Hohenwarter, A.; Pippan, R.

Fracture and fracture toughness of nanopolycrystalline metals produced by severe plastic deformation.

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A-Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., Bd. 373 (2015), S. ARTN 20140366.

 

Schuh, B.; Mendez-Martin, F.; Voelker, B.; George, E. P.; Clemens, H. Pippan, R.; Hohenwarter, A.;

Mechanical properties, microstructure and thermal stability of a nanocrystalline CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy after

severe plastic deformation. Acta Mater., Bd. 96 (2015) S. 258-268

 

Kapp, M.W.; Kirchlechner, C.; Pippan, R.; Dehm, G.  Importance of dislocation pile-ups on the mechanical properties and the Bauschinger effect in microcantilevers.

Journal of Materials Research 30 (2015)) S. 791-797.

 

Kormout, K. S.; Yang, B.; Pippan, R.

Deformation Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Cu-Ag Alloys Processed by High-Pressure Torsion.

Adv. Eng. Mater., Bd. 17 (12) (2015) S. 1828-1834.

 

Kraemer, L.; Kormout, K. S.; Setman, D.; Champion, Y.; Pippan, R.

Production of Bulk Metallic Glasses by Severe Plastic Deformation.

METALS, Bd. 5 (2) (2015) S. 720-72

 

Leitner, T.; Hohenwarter, A.; Pippan, R.

Revisiting fatigue crack growth in various grain size regimes of Ni.

Mater. Sci. Eng. A-Struct. Mater. Prop. Microstruct. Process., Bd. 646 (2015) S. 294-305.

 

Maier, V.; Hohenwarter, A.; Pippan, R.; Kiener, D.

Thermally activated deformation processes in body-centered cubic Cr - How microstructure influences strain-rate sensitivity.

Scr. Mater., Bd. 106 (2015) S. 42-45.

 

Maier, V.; Leitner, A.; Pippan, R.; Kiener, D.

Thermally Activated Deformation Behavior of ufg-Au: Environmental Issues During Long-Term and High-Temperature Nanoindentation Testing.

JOM, Bd. 67 (2015) S. 2934-2944.

 

Renk, O.; Hohenwarter, A.; Schuh, B.; Li, J. H.; Pippan, R.

Hardening by annealing: insights from different alloys.

LTD, IOP PUBLISHING (Hrsg.) (36TH RISO INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MATERIALS SCIENCE); Riso (2015).

2014

Leitner T., Hohenwarter A., Pippan R.

Fatigue crack growth behavior of ultrafine-grained nickel produced by high pressure torsion.

Procedia Materials Science 3, (2014) 1044-1049.

 

Renk O., Hohenwarter A., Wurster S., Pippan R.

Direct evidence for grain boundary motion as the dominant restoration mechanism in the steady-state regime of extremely cold-rolled copper.

Acta Materialia 77, (2014) 401-410.

 

Sauvage X., Champion Y., Pippan R., Cuvilly F., Perrie`re L., Akhatova A., Renk O.

 Structure and properties of a nanoscaled composition modulated metallic glass.

Journal of Materials Science 49, (2014) 5640-5645.