Book project: ‘Imports, Imitations, Incorporations: The Mycenaean Influence on Crete in the Mycenaean Palatial Period’

The project, carried out from 2010 to 2013, deals with the Mycenaean influence on Crete in the Mycenaean palatial period (c. 1400–1200 BC) and aims for a better understanding of cultural exchange phenomena and trade links between the Greek Mainland and the island of Crete.

Therefore all Mycenaean imports of pottery and figurines on Crete as well as locally produced imitations of those types of finds are for the first time presented together and diachronically analysed. Furthermore, several chapters deal with hybrid vessels which unite characteristics of both ceramic traditions, the Minoan as well as the Mycenaean one.

Based on these archaeological evidence, the study demonstrates the connections of the different Cretan regions with various parts of the mainland, clarifies the chronological developments concerning imports and imitations and offers a historical interpretation whilst taking into account results from previous research on other classes of material, particularly on the architecture and metal finds.

Firstly, the analysis showed that the individual Cretan regions were influenced to different degrees by the Mycenaean culture during LH/LM IIIA-IIIB and secondly, that an even greater degree of differentiation took place within each region, as Mycenaean influence decreased distinctly with increasing distance from the coast, hardly reaching the interior of the island.

The results of the study will be presented as a monograph in summer 2017.



  • K. Bernhardt, Importieren, Imitieren, Inkorporieren. Der mykenische Einfluss auf Kreta während der mykenischen Palastzeit, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Verlag, in Vorbereitung, voraussichtlich Sommer 2017.
  • K. Bernhardt, Absent Mycenaeans? On Mycenaean figurines and their imitations on Crete in LM IIIA–IIIB. In: E. Alram-Stern, F. Blakolmer, S. Deger-Jalkotzy, R. Laffineur, J. Weilhartner (Hrsg.), METAPHYSIS. Ritual, Myth and Symbolism in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 15th International Aegean Conference, Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Department Aegean and Anatolia, Austrian Academy of Sciences and Institute of Classical Archaeology, University of Vienna, Vienna, 22-25 April 2014. Aegaeum, Leuven 2016, 501–504.
  • K. Bernhardt, Mix-and-match. Über die Verwendung mykenischer Elemente auf Kreta in SM IIIA–IIIB. In: B. Kainrath, G. Grabherr (Hrsg.), Akten des 15. Österreichischen Archäologentages in Innsbruck, 27. Februar–1. März 2014, Innsbruck 2016, 13–20.
  • K. Bernhardt, Mycenaean imports to Crete and the Levant. In: L. Bombardieri, A. D’Agostino, G. Guarducci, V. Orsi, St. Valentini (Hrsg.), SOMA 2012. Identity and Connectivity. Proceedings of the 16th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, Florence, Italy, 1–3 March 2012, Volume 1, Oxford 2014, 1251–1258.
  • K. Bernhardt, Mix and Match. Über die Verwendung mykenischer Elemente auf Kreta in SM IIIA–IIIB, Forum Archaeologiae 70/3/2014.
  • K. Bernhardt, Mycenaean imports to Crete: Some thoughts on the interrelations between the Greek mainland and Crete. In: Proceedings of the XI Cretological Congress, Rethymno 21st–27th of October 2011, Volume 38/6, (angenommen).