Greek fortifications of the Geometric and Archaic periods

The habilitation of O. Hülden (LMU Munich 2016) includes a critical assessment and classification of the fortification systems of the Greek world considered to be Geometric or Archaic. The manuscript was accepted for publication by the Sonderschriften des OeAI and will appear in 2019.

The major result of the study demonstrates that the continuous fortification of almost all Greek settlements dispersed in the entire Mediterranean must be refuted based on the current archaeological and historical evidence. Rather it appears that in the individual regions of the Greek world with its diverse natural settings and against the background of different historical prerequisites, the development of fortifications diverges which obviously also includes giving up the construction of a settlement fortification. Defining the fortification as a constituting element of the Greek polis before the Classical period must be negated.