Migration has drawn massive attention in the media and has become a central focal point of political discussion since the turn of the last century. Simultaneously, migration research has found increasing recognition in the mainstream of academic disciplines. However, the results of this research still enjoy relatively modest public visibility in Austria.
To overcome this deficit and familiarise the wider public with the topic of migration from different academic perspectives, the Commission for Migration and Integration Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences has initiated the new series “Migration &” in September 2021, which is edited by Wiebke Sievers and Rainer Bauböck. The volumes combine migration with different social, political, or cultural topics that are undergoing intense change through migration and are often associated with migration in wider public discourses. The series aims to summarise the state of research and current scholarly debates regarding these fields in generally understandable language. At the same time, the texts do not intend to simplify academic insights and contexts, but to provide an incentive for an in-depth examination of the topic. The series intentionally lays empirical emphasis on the Austrian context, but always embeds this discussion within an international, particularly European, comparison.
Austria has been a target country for labour migration since the 1960s. This book provides insights into academic discourse and empirical research on migration and labour in Austria in international comparison. It shows why there is need for migrants in the Austrian labour market, where they come from, where they find work and highlights the role of social partnership institutions and the welfare regime for migrants’ labour market integration. The book also addresses health issues at work, discrimination in the labour market, the posting of foreign workers and self-employed domestic care work performed by migrants. Effects of free mobility of labour in the EU on wages and the labour market are analysed with a focus on Central and Eastern European countries. Moreover, the book illuminates the legal framework and policy options for regulating labour migration. It concludes with a discussion of future prospects in view of technological change and different migration scenarios.
Migration research has long predominantly focussed on researching migrants from the perspective of majority societies. These approaches are increasingly being condemned as "migrantology". They are particularly criticised for locating migrants in their countries of origin and not in the countries where they reside. This conceptualisation perpetuates national borders that have in fact been overcome by the social reality of mobility and migration across borders. At the same time, new approaches have emerged over the last decades that take migration as a starting point to analyse global inequality and the drawing of national boundaries which exclude migrants. The present volume takes up this new research tradition. However, it does not aim to add further new research approaches to the many that have emerged in migration research over the last years. Instead, most contributions illustrate how these diverse theoretical and methodological approaches can be translated into concrete empirical research. They do not analyse migrants, but discuss global challenges such as climate change, societal debates about migration, the handling of societal diversity in schools, administration, and the labour market, as well as the negotiation of belongings in migration societies characterized by racism and exclusion.
How are migration and religion related? In the Austrian context, this question is mostly reduced to debates on whether Islam belongs to Austria and whether Muslims are integrated into society. The book “Migration and Religion” asks more fundamental questions. How are migration movements and changing religious landscapes connected? Which societal and institutional adaption processes are provoked by migration regarding the handling of religion? Why is religion such a dominant subject in migration discourses? Which party-political considerations concern the intersection of religion and migration? How is religion related to debates about shared values? And what are the roles of international actors when it comes to religion and migration? The author presents state-of-the-art results from the fields of research migration and religious studies in an easily understandable format. In each chapter the author discusses the issues at hand from different theoretical perspectives, to allow for a variety of angles. Readers are introduced to the perspectives of liberal theory, social constructivism, and multiculturalism, practically discussed through examples from Austria, such as the reform of the Islam Law, Christian Orthodoxy as a migrant religious community below the radar, and the ban of headscarves in schools. The book concludes by sketching future prospects for society, research, religious communities, and politics at the intersection of religion and migration.
Due to international migration, the resident population of a country and its citizens are increasingly less congruent. On the one hand, many citizens settle outside the borders of their country and, on the other hand, a growing portion of the resident population consists of non-citizens. The degree of this discrepancy does not only depend on migration but also on the rules guiding the acquisition and loss of citizenship. This book explores the relation between migration, citizenship, and the right to vote from legal, historical, sociological, and political science perspectives. The individual chapters deal with the acquisition of citizenship at birth and through naturalisation, its loss by renunciation or withdrawal, multiple citizenship, and the extension of the right to vote to non-citizens and non-residents. It examines the Austrian situation in international comparison, revealing that among immigration countries Austria lags far behind concerning access to citizenship, the recognition of multiple citizenship, and the extension of electoral rights to immigrants. The authors argue that these policies are vital to the integration of immigrants as well as to the legitimacy of democratic institutions in Austria.
The toleration of dual citizenship has become a global trend as states try to retain ties to their emigrants or to encourage their immigrants to naturalise. This volume examines changes in state attitudes to dual citizenship and their social impact, zooming in from analyses of global dynamics to a series of country case studies that illustrate the variety of reasons and intentions behind dual citizenship reform. Finally, five chapters provide the most thorough analysis of the special Austrian case so far. They show the size of Austria’s untapped potential for naturalisation of immigrants, the incoherence of its citizenship policies at home and abroad and the need for a comprehensive reform.
Flight and asylum have long dominated public debates in Europe. Right-wing populist parties have gained significance in many countries. An agreement that will allow the European Union to assume its responsibility towards worldwide refugee movements seems out of reach. The present volume contributes to the differentiation of these debates. On the one hand, it reconsiders flight and asylum from international and historical perspectives as well as from the point of view of those affected by these developments. On the other hand, it presents empirical results on the political and civil response to the refugees besides their integration into the labour market and the opportunities and limits of their social and cultural participation.
Immigration has been one of the core processes of social change in Austria during recent decades. Persons with an immigration background usually are somewhat underrepresented in social surveys. This volume presents the results of an additional survey conducted in the context of the Austrian social survey of 2016. It compares central values, attitudes, and practices of immigrants with those of the long-settled population, discussing areas such as family, work, politics, and religion. The publication sheds new light on the matter of the integration of immigrants in Austria.
Migration and integration are two globally contended themes, partially because migrant movement typically is associated with processes resulting in enormous changes in social structure. These in turn are not conflict-free in terms of the distribution of resources.
This publication addresses the most important keywords and hypotheses associated with public debates on migration, and engages in a factual discussion based on scientific findings. It answers to empirical findings and not to any ideology.
An open access volume with 46 chapters on questions of citizenship, democracy, and mobility within the European context.
This study analyses how immigrant and ethnic-minority writers have challenged the understanding of certain national literatures and have markedly changed these. In other national contexts, ideologies and institutions have contained the challenge these writers pose to national literatures. Case studies of the emergence and recognition of immigrant and ethnic-minority writing come from fourteen national contexts. These include classical immigration countries, such as Canada and the United States, countries where immigration became an issue after World War II, such as the United Kingdom, France and Germany, as well as countries rarely discussed in this context, such as Brazil and Japan. Finally, this study uses these individual analyses to discuss this writing as an international phenomenon.
As a classically interdisciplinary topic, migration and integration is investigated in a range of disciplines. The Yearbook of Migration and Integration Research aims to encourage interdisciplinary exchange by regularly publishing and documenting the main questions and results of Austrian migration and integration research.
The entries in this fourth volume address a broad range of topics, from asylum, health and care, families and language as well as integration and identity. In doing so, new theoretical and methodological approaches are described and the question of how research results can be integrated into practice is discussed.
Sample chapter (German)
An open access volume with 62 contributions on the transformation of citizenship through economic, social and political change, structured as a series of four conversations in which authors engage with each other on urgent issues of current debate.
US American journalists, authors and physicians spending time in Austria during the 1920s and 1930s established extended networks of friendship with Austrians. Despite the collapse of the monarchy and despite recurring political crises, these American visitors continued to perceive Vienna according to stereotype notions established during the 19th century. Austria was thus portrayed accordingly in many different literary documents from that later period. When a number of Austrians had to flee the country after the catastrophe of the Anschluss, their previously established friendships with American colleagues played an important role in their lives in exile. This publication describes the importance of these transatlantic connections, which continued to exert an influence well into the 1980s.