Expert knowledge, the public and political decision-making. Ethics councils and citizen participation as a mean of policy advice in Germany and Austria

Ethics councils and citizen participation as a means of policy advice in Germany and Austria

The progress of the Life Sciences raises complex ethical issues. Consequently, there is a need for more expertise in politics. In the last few years, national ethics councils have been established throughout all Western democracies. These expert panels are often accompanied by public scepticism. Are we facing expertocracy, in such a sensitive field as ethics? The project reveals that ethics councils do not replace the political process. Rather, ethical expertise opens up new ways of legitimising political decisions.

Expert panels deliver split opinions

Especially in bioethical issues such as stem cell research or genetic diagnosis, policy makers and society like to mobilize expertise provided by newly institutionalised ethics councils. However, often these interdisciplinary expert panels document in their votes the insurmountable dissent on a subject, instead of presenting a clear recommendation.

The project analysed how ethics expertise is produced in such ethics councils, in other words, how Interdisciplinarity works in practice; in addition, it analysed which political function ethics councils really have.

Major outcomes are:

Commissions tend to argue internally about whose knowledge is relevant and which arguments are considered legitimate. During the process a hierarchy between the particular exponents of different disciplines occurs. While lawyers maintain a strong position, ethicists are surprisingly of marginal significance.

Ethics councils do not make political decisions. Instead, the experts’ dissent reveals that the controversial issues have to be reconciled politically – politics becomes visible as a relevant actor.

Publikationen

Publikationen

  • Bogner, A., Menz, W., & Schumm, W. (2008). Ethikexpertise in Wertkonflikten. Zur Produktion und politischen Verwendung von Kommissionsethik in Deutschland und Österreich. In R. Mayntz, Neidhardt, F., Weingart, P., & Wengenroth, U. (Eds.), Wissensproduktion und Wissenstransfer. Wissen im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Öffentlichkeit (pp. 243-268). Bielefeld: transcript.
  • Gazsó, A., & Kastenhofer, K. (2008). Converging Technologies in der Umweltforschung, 9-10. Retrieved from http://epub.oeaw.ac.at/ita/ita-newsletter/NL0308.pdf#9
  • Bogner, A. (2007). Globale Technik - lokale Ethik?. In M. Decker (Ed.), Technology Assessment in der Weltgesellschaft (pp. 83-95). Berlin: S. Bröchler, A. Bora.
  • Bogner, A. (2007). Auf dem Weg in die Räterepublik?, 9-10. Retrieved from http://epub.oeaw.ac.at/ita/ita-newsletter/NL0607.pdf#9
  • Bogner, A. (2007). Was kann und darf die Genforschung in der Medizin?, 1. Retrieved from http://epub.oeaw.ac.at/ita/ita-newsletter/NL0307.pdf#11
  • Bogner, A. (2007). Österreich: Zum Stand der Bio- und Medizinethik. In (pp. 67-74).
  • Degelsegger, A. (2006). Globale TA durch Ethikkommissionen?, 9.
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2006). Science crime. The Korean cloning scandal and the role of ethics. Science And Public Policy, 33, 601-612.
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2006). Welche Rationalität durch Verfahren?. Teorie Vedy/theory Of Science, 15, 245-264.
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2006). Wissenschaftskriminalität. Der koreanische Klon-Skandal und die Bedeutung der Ethik. Leviathan, 34, 270-290.
  • Bogner, A. (2006). Politikberatung im Feld der Biopolitik. In S. et. al Falk (Ed.), Handbuch Politikberatung (pp. 483-495). Wiesaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2006). Wissen und Werte als Verhandlungsform. Ethikexpertise in der Regulation der Stammzellenforschung. In R. Wink (Ed.), Deutsche Stammzellenolitik im Zeitalter der Transnationalität (pp. 141-163). Baden-Baden: Nomos.
  • Bogner, A. (2006). Babys nach Maß gibt es nicht. Der Soziologe Alexander Bogner im Gespräch mit dem Genetiker Markus Hengstschläger.
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2006). Absichtsvoller Streit - Der Nationale Ethikrat nimmt der Politik keine Entscheidungen ab.
  • Bogner, A. (2006). Politikberatung in Wertekonflikten, 2. Retrieved from http://epub.oeaw.ac.at/ita/ita-newsletter/NL0306.pdf#2
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2005). Alternative Rationalitäten? Technikbewertung durch Laien und Experten am Beispiel der Biomedizin. (A. Bora, Decker, M., Grunwald, A., & Renn, O., Eds., F. K. Institut für Technikfolgenabschätzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS), Tran.), Technik in einer fragilen Welt - Die Rolle der Technikfolgenabschätzung. Berlin: sigma.
  • Wild, C. (2005). Patientenverfügungen: Stellungnahme des Wiener Bioethik-Beirats, 12-13. Retrieved from http://epub.oeaw.ac.at/ita/ita-newsletter/NL0905.pdf#12
  • Bogner, A. (2005). Moralische Expertise? Zur Produktionsweise von Kommissionsethik. In A. Bogner & Torgersen, H. (Eds.), Wozu Experten? Ambivalenzen der Beziehung von Wissenschaft und Politik (pp. 172-193). Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2005). The politics of knowledge and values: Ethics expertise in the stem cell discourse. Theory Of Science/teorie Vedy, 14, 113-126.
  • Bogner, A., & Menz, W. (2005). Bioethical Controversies and Policy Advice: The Production of Ethical Expertise and its Role in the Substantiation of Political Decision-Making. In S. Maasen & Weingart, P. (Eds.), Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making (pp. 21-40). Dordrecht: Springer.

Konferenzbeiträge/Vorträge

Konferenzbeiträge/Vorträge

  • 25/06/2007 , München
    Alexander Bogner,  : 
    Knowledge for decision-making processes - Expert knowledge, the public and political decision
    Responsible Research in Europe - Science and its Publics
    Other Invited Lecture
  • 20/03/2007 , Wien
    Alexander Bogner: 
    Ethik statt Technology Assessment?
    Ethik statt Technology Assessment?
    Other Lecture
  • 16/03/2007
    Karen Kastenhofer: 
    Comparative perspectives on risk research and biotechnology regulation in Europe and the United States
    Epistemic cultures, non-knowledge and GMO risk assessment in Germany, Governing Molecules - Taming Risks
    Other Lecture
  • 11/01/2007 , Brüssel
    Helge Torgersen: 
    Debating converging technologies - the biotech struggle revisited?
    European Commission's expert meeting on Eurobarometer 64.1
    Other Lecture
  • 23/11/2006 , Berlin
    Alexander Bogner: 
    Ethisierung und globale Technik - der Fall des koreanischen Stammzell-Stars Hwang
    NTA2 - Zweite Konferenz des Netzwerks TA: "Technologyassessment in der Weltgesellschaft"
    Other Lecture
  • 06/11/2006 , Berlin
    Alexander Bogner: 
    Kontroverse Ethikexpertise
    Berliner Akademiegespräche zur Wissenschaftspolitik
    Other Invited Lecture
  • 28/08/2006 , Frankfurt am Main
    Alexander Bogner: 
    Biomedizin-Kontroversen und ihre Thematisierungsweise
    Biomedizin-Kontroversen und ihre Thematisierungsweise
    Other Invited Lecture
  • 25/08/2006 , Lausanne
    Alexander Bogner: 
    Ethicizing and technology conflicts
    EASST Conference
    Other Lecture
  • 27/02/2006 , Prag
    Alexander Bogner: 
    Bioethics and value conflicts
    Ethics of Science
    Other Invited Lecture
  • 29/11/2005 , Wien
    Alexander Bogner: 
    Politikberatung durch Ethikkommissionen
    Reihe Bioethik
    OLD: Invited Lecture
  • 1

Duration

09/2005 - 02/2007

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