Objectives and research questions
CLIP was a network of 30 European cities working together to support the social and economic integration of migrants. The CLIP network composition is threefold; it operates under the aegis of a number of European organisations, comprises a network of European cities and is supported by a group of specialist European research centres. By encouraging the structured sharing of experiences through the medium of separate city reports and workshops covering four research modules, the network enables local authorities to learn from each other and deliver a more effective integration policy. For each of the four research modules, one specific issue relevant to the integration of migrants and the role of local authorities is examined. The first module researched by CLIP was on housing – segregation, access to, quality and affordability of housing for migrants - which has been identified as a major issue impacting migrant integration into ‘host societies’. The second module examined equality and diversity policies in relation to employment within city administrations and their provision of services. The focus of the third module was on intercultural policies and intergroup relations. The final module looked at ethnic entrepreneurship.
The activities of the project’s first research module on housing focused on a the systematic analysis of residential segregation or concentrations of migrant or ethnic minority groups in European cities and on the migrants’ access to affordable and decent housing. Hence the first module examined: segregation in housing access, housing quality and affordability. The module aimed to provide an overview and expert analysis of relevant housing policies and measures at the local level in twenty European cities, as well as indicators for evaluating their effect. Research results from the housing module prove that having satisfactory accommodation is generally regarded as one of the most important human needs.
The second CLIP research module examined policies and practices in twenty-five cities in terms of municipal employment and municipal service provision. The main focus of the research was on equality and diversity policies in relation to employment and service provision for migrants in the municipality, e.g. approaches to equality and diversity, employment policy, practice and outcomes and provision of services. The findings showed that cities are at very different stages in the development of policies and practices in relation to the employment of migrants and people with a migration background and the services provided for these groups. It was recommended that cities should give greater priority to policy areas concerning these two integration measures.
The third research module explored the major needs in intergroup relations between municipal authorities and minority groups, the responses of cities and migrant organisations to meet these needs and the measures taken by cities to improve attitudes and relations between majority and minority groups. How cities deal with the problem of radicalisation and what measures have put in place to counter it were also important aspects of the study. While the CLIP project covers all groups living in the cities that make up the network, the third research module placed a particular focus on the experiences of Muslim communities, as Islam is the largest ‘new’ religion in CLIP cities. The project also showed that most CLIP cities deal with intergroup relations and intercultural policies within the framework of integration policies.
CLIP’s fourth module provided an overview of policies and programmes for the promotion of ethnic entrepreneurship as part of a local economic development and integration strategy for migrants. Its findings are based on contributions by 28 European cities. Ethnic entrepreneurs contribute to the economic growth of their local areas, often rejuvenating neglected crafts and trades and increasingly providing higher value added services. At present, ethnic entrepreneurship is not an important part of the European integration policy for migrants.
Bosswick W., Fassmann H., Kohlbacher J. u. D. Lüken-Klassen: Housing and Residential Segregation of Migrants. A State-of-the-Art Report. ISR-Forschungberichte 34. Wien, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 2007. ISBN 3-7001-6042-7
Fassmann, H. & J. Kohlbacher (2009), Housing and segregation of migrants. Case study Vienna, Austria.
Fassmann, H. & J. Kohlbacher (2009), Diversity policy in employment and service provision - Case study: Vienna, Austria.
Fassmann, H., J. Kohlbacher & B. Perchinig (2010), Intercultural policies and intergroup relations - Case study: Vienna, Austria.
Fassmann, H., P. Görgl (2010), Intercultural policies and intergroup relations - Case study: Zagreb, Croatia.
Cermakova, D. & J. Kohlbacher (2012). Ethnic entrepreneurship - Case study: Prague, Czech Republic.
Kohlbacher, J. & H. Fassmann (2012), Ethnic entrepreneurship - Case study: Vienna, Austria.