The research area ‘Population and Space’ examines the population geography of the Ottoman era Balkans in a historical perspective by perceiving human society as a complex interaction between humans and geography, as well as between individuals and cultures, that have taken place in certain locations, under specific circumstances in a given place, and at a given moment. Emphasizing the interactions between time, space, and multiple social and political actors the research attempts to overcome the current limitations of Ottoman Balkans’ studies, which generally remain regionally fragmented and concentrated mainly on individual aspects of the peninsula’s Ottoman past. The suggested profound historical population studies, which rest upon and apply innovative digital methods for spatial analysis by taking into closer consideration the spatiotemporal aspects of data, have the capacity to provide the backbone for several other disciplines in social sciences and the humanities that examine various aspects of human past and therefore stand forth as one of the most important elements of our understanding of people’s social, economic, and cultural behavior.