Glottocode: baya1255

The Boyash (also Bayash) or Rudari are archaic subvarieties deriving from the Transilvanian and Muntenian/Wallachian varieties of Romanian Language. They are spoken in eastern Slovakia (around Košice), Ukrainian Transcarpathia (Verhnja Vižnicja, Poroškovo, Mirča), Hungary (the southern Hungarian comitate along the southern border, Baranya), large parts of Romania (southern Romanian plains and southern Transylvania), the Republic of Moldova, Croatia (mainly Slavonia, Međimurje), Serbia (eastern and central Serbia, the Vojvodina, and the Bačka), Bosnia (around Tuzla, Brčko District, Sarajevo), north and northeast Bulgaria (especially Varna, Zlatarica), the Republic of Macedonia (Bitola), Greece (especially Thessaly, Alexandria, Zefyri), and, according to Pettan (2002: 182), also in Kosovo to where they migrated from Serbia. Due to their deportation in World War II they can also be found in Transnistria.

Its speakers are called Boyash in English (Romanian: Băieși, Rudari; Hungarian: Beás; Slovakian: Bojáš etc.). Alternative names are Rudari /Ludari, Lingurari and Zlătari. Both terms Boyash and Rudari can be traced back to their earlier occupations as mineworkers and gold panners. The derivation of the ethnonym Rudari from the Slav word rud (mine, ore pit) can be easily explained, given the fact that this word is very widespread in the Slavic languages. The endonym in most communities is Tsigan, the label Roma being vehemently rejected.

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